AJAX progress indicator
  • 1
  • 1862 Homestead Act
    Important to U.S. westward migration, the Homestead Act provided adult heads of families with 160 acres of surveyed government land for a minimal fee, and 5 years tenancy on that land.  
  • a
  • A.D.
    a dating system meaning "in the year of our lord" (anno domini); equivalent to C.E. or Common/Current era; usually placed before the date, as in AD 1200 (see Chapter 2)
  • Abecedarian
    A poem in which the first letter of each line follows the alphabet down the page. There are no restrictions on meter or rhyme.
  • Abraham Lincoln
    Lincoln served as the 16th U.S. President. Lincoln presided over the Union during the Civil War, advocated for the end of slavery, and was assassinated by a confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth.
  • Abraham Rencher
    Rencher was appointed as Governor of New Mexico Territory in 1857 by President Buchanan. Rencher was a social progressive who passed legislation for mandatory education for all children, and paid teachers per student.
  • absolute dating
    estimate of an actual calendar date; also called chronometric dating (see Chapter 2)
  • Abstract
    An abstract is a brief summary of a research article that is used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose.
  • Abstract
    Idea words such as "dream," "love," or "curiosity" that one cannot touch physicaly and experience directly through the five senses.
  • Abu Hureyra
    Neolithic tell site in Syria with pre-Neolithic and Neolithic components
  • Academia
    The environment or community concerned with the pursuit of research, education, and scholarship.
  • Academic writing
    Refers to a particular style of expression that researchers use to define the intellectual boundaries of their disciplines and their areas of expertise.
  • Accommodation
    When existing schemas change on the basis of new information.
  • accommodation
    A term developed by psychologist Jean Piaget to describe what occurs when new information or experiences cause you to modify your existing schemas
  • accommodation
    when we restructure or modify what we already know so that new information can fit in better
  • acequias
    An irrigation system used in Spain and its colonies for agriculture, composed of communal waterways to direct snowmelt and rivers over long distances. New Mexico's acequias date back to the pre-contact period. 
  • Achieved Status
    Status gained from accomplishments
  • achieved status
    prestige that is gained through one's accomplishments; contrast with hereditary status/office
  • achievement tests
    used to measure what a child has already learned
  • Acoma Pueblo
    Located on top of a mesa, its height protected inhabitants from enemies below and gave the pueblo the nickname "Sky City."
  • active coping
    seeking information, working to solve problems; tends to produce more positive outcomes than passive coping
  • active euthanasia
    a type of voluntary euthanasia that is active, such as administering a lethal dose of medication to someone who wishes to die
  • active life expectancy
    the number of years a person can expect to live without disability
  • activity theory
    suggests that people are barred from meaningful experiences as they age and that physical and social activities are important
  • Actor-observer difference
    To make more personal attributions for the behavior of others than we do for ourselves and to make more situational attributions for our own behavior than for the behavior of others.
  • Adams-Onís Treaty
    Also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, in 1819 the United States and Spain completed a treaty that transferred Florida to the United States and settled their border dispute.
  • Adaptation
    How an organism copes with their environment
  • adelantados
    Literally "go-ahead men" in Spanish. These were nobles who explored and conquered the New World in return for funding for further operations and new titles of nobility.
  • Adelina “Nina” Otero-Warren
    Born near Los Lunas, New Mexico, Otero was an early New Mexican suffragette and educator. Educated in the East, Ms. Otero returned to New Mexico and was active in politics, education and womans voting rights.   
  • adolescent egocentrism
    a characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10-13) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others (according to David Elkind)
  • adolescent growth spurt
    rapid increase in the individual’s height and weight during puberty resulting from simultaneous release of growth hormones, thyroid hormones, and androgens. Males experience their growth spurt about two years later, on average, than females
  • adoption study
    A behavior genetic research method that involves the comparison of adopted children to their adoptive and biological parents
  • adrenarche
    an increase in the production of androgens by the adrenal cortex that usually occurs during the eighth or ninth year of life and typically peaks at around 10 to 14 years of age and is eventually involved in the development of pubic hair, body odor, skin oiliness, and acne
  • adverse childhood experiences
    abuse, neglect, and violent experiences that contribute to childhood trauma
  • Advisory Committee on Uranium
    Advisory Committee on Uranium was known officially as the S-1 Uranium Committee. It was a subcommittee of the National Defense Research Committee that had succeeded the Briggs Advisory Committee in Uranium. The committee later evolved into the Manhattan Project.  
  • ageism
    discrimination based on age
  • Aggression
    Behavior that is intended to harm another individual who does not wish to be harmed.
  • agonal breathing
    gasping, labored breaths caused by an abnormal pattern of brainstem reflex
  • agressive-rejected
    children who are ostracized because they are aggressive, loud, and confrontational
  • agriculture
    the reliance on domesticated plants for food
  • Agustín de Iturbide
    Mexican army general and politician Agustín de Iturbide took control of Mexico City on September 27, 1821. His act that established the first and only Mexican Empire effectively secured the new republic's independence from Spain.
  • Ainsworth’s strange situation
    a sequence of staged episodes that illustrate the type of attachment between a child and (typically) their mother
  • Alamogordo Bombing Range
    Alamogordo Bombing Range was the former name of White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), located near Alamogordo, NM. The Trinity Site where the first atomic bomb was tested is part of WSMR.   
  • Albert B. Fall
    Albert B. Fall served as Senator of New Mexico, associate judge of the New Mexico Supreme Court, member of the Territorial Council, Attorney General, captain of an infantry company during the Spanish-American War, and delegate for New Mexico's constitutional convention. In 1908, Fall(...)
  • Albert Einstein
    German-born theoretical physicist who developed the general theory of relativity. He decided to stay in the U.S. after Adolf Hitler rose to power in 1933. He endorsed a letter to President Roosevelt about nuclear weapons which led to the creation of the Manhattan Project.  
  • Albert J. Beveridge
    American Historian and U.S. Senator from Indiana. Beveridge was a supporter of Theodore Roosevelt's "Progressive" national agenda.  
  • Albert P. Morrow
    Cavalry Major, who led the 9th U.S. Cavalry regiment, was made up of enlisted African Americans, known as the Buffalo Soldiers
  • Albino Pérez
    Following Santa Anna's centralization of the Mexican government through the Constitution of 1836, Pérez was appointed Governor of New Mexico. Despite his proven leadership ability, he failed to understand the realities of the northern frontier. He was brutally killed in August 1837 not long(...)
  • Alexander A. McSween
    A contemporary and comrade of John Tunstall in the Lincoln County War, Tunstall and McSween hired local outlaws, such as Billy the Kid, to protect their land from the corrupt Murphy-Dolan Faction.   
  • Alexander Sachs
    Sachs was a Jewish American economist who delivered a letter to President Roosevelt from Einstein and Szilard. The letter informed the President of the growing German nuclear research and encouraged the President to build nuclear research capabilities. This letter spurred the start of the(...)
  • All Indian Pueblo Council
    All Indian Pueblo Council (AIPC) is comprised of nineteen Sovereign Pueblos. These Pueblos are from New Mexico, with one from Texas: Pueblos of Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, Nambe, Ohkay Owingeh, Picuris, Pojoaque, San Felipe, San Ildefonso, Sandia, Santa Ana, Santa Clara, Santo(...)
  • Allele
    A variant of a gene.
  • allele
    A specific version of a gene
  • Alliteration
    In a line of poetry, a series of sounds consonants make at the beginning of or in the middle of words.
  • Alloparenting
    Someone other than the mother provides help in caring for infants
  • Allusion
    An indirect reference made to something else.
  • Alonso de Benavides
    Benavides was a Portuguese Franciscan missionary who was active in New Mexico during the 16th and 17th centuries. He wrote several ethnographic works and coined the term "Navajo."
  • Alta California
    Alta California, or Upper California, was a province created by the Viceroyalty of New Spain in 1804 called Alta California. Franciscan Friar Junípero Sera and Gaspar de Portolá established its first mission-and-presidio complex at San Diego in 1769.
  • Altamira
    Upper Paleolithic cave art site in Spain known for its rendering of Pleistocene bison; discovered by Maria de Sautuloa (ca. 18,000-14,000 B.P.)
  • altar screens
    Panels of religious paintings displayed directly above and behind an altar.
  • Altruism
    Refers to any behavior that is designed to increase another person’s welfare, and particularly those actions that do not seem to provide a direct reward to the person who performs them.
  • Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
    A Spanish explorer of the New World, one of the four survivors of the Narváez Expedition shipwreck that claimed more than 300 lives. Traveled through the American Southwest for eight years.
  • Alvaro Obregón
    Obregon's presidency of Mexico (1920-1924) was the first stable government since the start of the Mexican Revolution. Under his presidency he brought about education, socio economic and workers rights reforms into the country.   
  • Alzheimer's disease
    an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks
  • Amado Chaves
    Chaves was a lifelong Republican and an active political figure in New Mexico during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In 1891, Governor L. Bradford Prince appointed him as the first Territorial Superintendent of Schools. During his tenure, he defended bilingual education in(...)
  • American Expeditionary Force
    During World War I, the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was sent to Europe to aid the allies in 1917. Not until further preparations, however, did the AEF join French and British forces in the late spring of 1918. Ultimately, the support of the AEF helped the allied forces emerge victorious(...)
  • AMH
    stands for "anatomically modern human"; usually refers to skeletal remains that are essentially the same as modern humans (see Chapter 3)
  • amniotic sac
    A fluid-filled sac that protects and contains the fetus in the uterus
  • Amygdala
    A brain region responsible for regulating our perceptions of, and reactions to, aggression and fear.
  • amygdala
    part of the limbic system in the brain, which is involved with emotions and emotional responses and is particularly active during puberty
  • anal stage
    The stage of development when children are learning to control impulses; coincides with toddlerhood and toileting
  • anal stage
    the second stage in Freud’s theory of psychosexual development, lasting from age 18 months to three years, during which time the anus is the primary erogenous zone and pleasure is derived from controlling bladder and bowel movements
  • Analysis
    Separating complex ideas, materials, texts and studying their different parts in order to discover how the parts relate to one another
  • analytic thought
    thought that results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts. Analytic thought depends on logic and rationality
  • Analytical report
    Presents information with a comprehensive analysis to solve problems, demonstrate relationships, or make recommendations.
  • Anapest
    ˘ ˘ ΄ Two light stresses followed by a heavy stress.
  • ancestor veneration
    belief system in which the deceased have a continued existence and are able to influence the fortunes of the living; plastered skulls at Neolithic sites in the Near east may represent ancestor veneration
  • Ancestral Puebloan
    Formerly known as the Anasazi, the Ancestral Puebloan people inhabited the present-day Four Corners region between about 550 and 1200 CE. They constructed housing sites such as those at Chaco Canyon and Mesa Verde, and, as their name suggests, they were the forbears of the Pueblo peoples.
  • Anchoring and adjustment
    A cognitive bias for an individual to rely too heavily on an initial piece of information offered (known as the "anchor") when making decisions.
  • Andalusia
    The southernmost province of Spain. Its name is derived from Al-Andalus, a former Islamic stronghold on the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Andrés Juárez
    A Spanish friar who hailed from Cordoba who directed the construction of the Pecos mission until its completion in 1625.
  • andropause
    age-related hormone changes in men due to lower testosterone levels
  • Anglo
    Although the term "Anglo" broadly refers to anyone of British or Anglo-Saxon linguistic descent, in New Mexico history the term refers to people from the Eastern United States who first migrated to the area in the 1820s. Following the U.S.-Mexico War, more and more Anglo Americans arrived in(...)
  • animal fat lamps
    stone lamps filled with animal fat used in the interior of caves of the Upper Paleolithic (see Chapter 3)
  • Animatism
    Generalized spirit that is like luck, charm, spirit, or charisma that can be transferred between objects or people.
  • Animism
    The idea that the natural world is endowed with spirits, consciousness, and agency. Animals, plants, rocks, obejcts, weather, words, numbers can have animistic qualities.
  • animism
    the belief that inanimate objects are capable of actions and have lifelike qualities
  • annealing
    refers to heating metal in order to strengthen it. Often combined with forging.
  • anorexia nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by self-starvation. Affected individuals voluntarily undereat and often overexercise, depriving their vital organs of nutrition. Anorexia can be fatal
  • Anthropocene
    Proposed epoch based on the idea that humans have had a geological impact on planetary systems of climate and environment.
  • Anthropocentrism
    Perspective that humans are naturally superior to other life forms
  • Anthropomorphizing
    Attributing human qualities to something
  • anticlerical
    Anticlerical policies were those that opposed the political, economic, and social power of the Catholic Church. Nineteenth-century liberal leaders in Mexico, such as Benito Juárez, sought to curb the political power that the Catholic Church traditionally held by breaking up Church landholding(...)
  • antiquarianism
    interest in artifacts as aesthetic objects only without concern for context or the information it can provide (see Chapter 1)
  • Antiquities Act
    Edgar Lee Hewett played a central role in the passage of this legislation that gave the President of the United States the authority to designate certain places as National Monuments. The United States Congress passed the Antiquities Act in 1906.  
  • Antonio de Espejo
    The leader of a Spanish expedition into the Rio Grande Valley and New Mexico in 1582.
  • Antonio José Ortíz
    A wealthy Spanish trader who established a system of patronage for the production of religious art. His donations led to the restoration of several famous churches in New Mexico.
  • Antonio José Otero
      A circuit court judge in the mid 1880s who became the only person of Spanish and Mexican heritage to sit on the New Mexico Supreme Bench.  
  • Antonio Joseph
    Born in Taos in 1846, Joseph built a career as a territorial politician during his adult life. Between 1878 and 1880 he served as a judge in Taos County. He then moved to Ojo Caliente and was elected to the Territorial House of Representatives in 1882. For a full decade between 1885 and 1895(...)
  • Antonio López de Santa Anna
    Santa Anna was President of the first Mexican Republic. He authorized and enacted the Siete Leyes. 
  • Antonio Valverde
    Valverde served as governor of New Mexico in 1716 and from 1718 to 1721. His politics largely involved stopping French encroachment into the Great Plains region.
  • Apache Summit
    Under the leadership of Wendell Chino, the Mescalero Apaches created a ski resort, initially named Apache Summit. Today it is the Inn of the Mountain Gods. 
  • Aphorism
    A short phrase that contains a general truth.
  • Applied Anthropology
    Field of anthropology that uses concepts and techniques to help solve modern-day problems, e.g., forensic anthropology
  • aptitude tests
    used to measure a student’s ability to learn or to determine if a person has potential in a particular program
  • Arbitrariness
    No connection between words and the things they represent.
  • Arbitration
    A type of third-party intervention that avoids negotiation as well as the necessity of any meetings between the parties in conflict.
  • archaeological science
    an approach to archaeology that applies scientific techniques to archaeological questions (see Chapter 1)
  • Archaeology
    Field of anthropology interested in the human past through the study of material remains
  • archaeometallurgy
    the study of metals in archaeology, how they were procured, modified, and used
  • Archaic
    Marked by the characteristics of an earlier period; antiquated.
  • Archaic
    term for the Mesolithic tradition in North America characteristic by broad-spectrum foraging and use of groundstone
  • Argument
    The effort to use rhetorical appeals to influence an audience and achieve a certain set of purposes and outcomes; argumentative writing must take a stance.
  • Armijo
    Armijo was a prominent Navajo headman at the time of the Long Walk. Upon undertaking the journey he reportedly stated, "Is it American justice that we must give up everything and receive nothing?" Along with headmen Manuelito and Barboncito, Armijo and several others signed the Treaty of 1868(...)
  • Army of the West
    The Army of the West was the U.S. military unit that occupied New Mexico during the U.S.-Mexico War. Brigadier General Stephen Watts Kearny headed the Army of the West's 1,700 men. Following the successful occupation of Santa Fe, Kearny divided his forces and continued with 200 men toward(...)
  • Arranged Marriages
    Marriages organized by people other than the bride and groom.
  • arthritis
    inflammation of one or more of the joints, characterized by joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age
  • Arthur Zimmermann
    Zimmerman was State Secretary for Foreign Affairs (1916-1917) of the German Second Reich. During his lifetime Herr Zimmermann was closely associated with various groups intent on political revolution and rebellion in Ireland, India, and Russia.  
  • Article IX (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
    Article IX of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo states that Mexicans living in the ceded territories would become U.S. citizens, their liberty and property would be protected, and they would be free to exercise their Catholic religion.
  • Article VIII (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
    In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Article VIII states that the property of Mexicans living in the ceded territories would be protected under U.S. administration. This article also granted these people the period of one year to declare their intentions to become U.S. citizens or to remain(...)
  • Article X (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)
    Article X of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo directly and unequivocally guaranteed the provisions of land grants issued by the Spanish and Mexican governments. The U.S. Congress struck the article from the final version of the treaty. 
  • articulated
    connected or put together; usually used in conjunction with skeletons; skeletons intentionally buried are often articulated while those exposed to the elements are not
  • artifact
    portable object made or modified by humans (see Chapter 2)
  • artificial insemination
    the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female’s cervix in order to become pregnant by means other than sexual intercourse
  • artificialism
    the belief that environmental characteristics can be attributed to human actions or interventions
  • Ascribed
    Status inherited or assigned
  • assemblage
    group of related or spatially associated artifacts (see Chapter 2)
  • Assertation
    Statement that presents a point of view.
  • Assimilation
    A process in which our existing knowledge influences new conflicting information to better fit with our existing knowledge, thus reducing the likelihood of schema change.
  • assimilation
    A cognitive process that manages how we take in new information and incorporate that new information into our existing knowledge
  • assimilation
    when we modify or change new information to fit into our schemas (what we already know)
  • Associated Press
    Founded in New York in 1846, the Associated Press (AP) is a consortium of journalists dedicated to breaking important news stories at the national and international levels. Initially, the AP relied on couriers on horseback sponsored by five New York City newspapers to relay news of the(...)
  • Association learning
    Occurs when an object or event comes to be associated with a natural response, such as an automatic behavior or a positive or negative emotion.
  • Athabaskan
    A large family of indigenous languages in North America with two separate groups concentrated in the northwestern region of the continent and the U.S. Southwest. Since 2012 there has been a move toward referring to the Athabaskan linguistic group as Dene, the name for the language family used(...)
  • athletic coach style of parenting
    the rules for behavior are consistent and objective and presented in that way. The parent’s role is to provide guidance while the child learns firsthand how to handle these situations
  • Atlanta University
    In 1865 the American Missionary Association founded Atlanta University with support from the Freedmen's Bureau to provide education to newly freed African Americans in Georgia. By the 1870s, the university issued its first bachelor's degrees. Most of its graduates became teachers and(...)
  • atlatl
    A prehistoric tool used for launching projectiles (usually spears) at higher velocities than they would otherwise travel when thrown by hand.
  • atlatl
    early dart-throwing device that enabled more forceful throws; sometimes called a spear thrower (see Chapters 1 and 3)
  • attached specialists
    craftsman associated with elite residences or structures
  • attachment
    the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual
  • Attachment style
    Individual differences in how people relate to others in close relationships.
  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    a neurological and behavioral disorder in which a person has difficulty staying on task, screening out distractions, and inhibiting behavioral outbursts
  • Attitude
    In a rhetorical situation, the orientation of the voice toward the message it wants to convey.
  • Attributional style
    The type of attributions that we tend to make for the events that occur to us.
  • Attrition
    Reduction in the number of research participants as some drop out over time
  • Aubade
    A poem about the morning or dawn.
  • Audience
    The individual or group whom the writer intends to address. The audience is the intended readers or listeners of a text
  • Aurelio Espinosa
    In 1880, Espinosa was born in the area of present-day southern Colorado considered to be part of the nuevomexicano homeland. He received a Ph.D. in Folklore at the University of Chicago, and he taught at Stanford University. During his career, he catalogued and traced the origins of(...)
  • Aurora Lucero
    An early advocate and educator defending the use of Spanish in the public school system in New Mexico during the 1860's.   
  • Author
    The originator or creator of a work, especially of a literary composition.
  • authoritarian parenting
    the traditional model of parenting in which parents make the rules and children are expected to be obedient
  • authoritarian parenting
    parenting style that is high in demandingness and low in support
  • Authoritarianism
    Is a personality dimension that characterizes people who prefer things to be simple rather than complex and who tend to hold traditional and conventional values.
  • authoritative parenting
    appropriately strict, reasonable, and affectionate. They are willing to negotiate when appropriate
  • authoritative parenting
    parenting that is both demanding and supportive of the child
  • autism
    a developmental disorder affecting communication and behavior
  • autism spectrum disorder
    a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior
  • auto-sacrifice
    offering of one's own blood
  • Automatic cognition
    Thinking that occurs out of our awareness, quickly, and without taking much effort.
  • autonomy vs. shame and doubt
    Erikson’s second crisis of psychosocial development, during which toddlers strive to gain a sense of self-rule over their actions and their bodies
  • Availability heuristic
    The tendency to make judgments of the frequency of an event, or the likelihood that an event will occur, on the basis of the ease with which the event can be retrieved from memory.
  • average
    children who receive an average number of positive and negative nominations from their peers
  • avocational archaeologists
    non-professional person interested in archaeology (see Chapter 2)
  • axons
    Fibers that extend from the neurons and transmit electrochemical impulses from that neuron to the dendrites of other neurons
  • Ayumu
    A chimpanzee who outcompetes humans in a working memory test
  • ayuntamientos
    Ayuntamientos, or cabildos, were municipal governments during the Spanish colonial era in New Mexico.
  • Aztlán
    Aztlán is the legendary home of the Aztec people. During the Chicano movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the notion of Aztlán provided legitimacy to the notion that the U.S. Southwest was the historical homeland of the Indo-hispano, or Chicano, people. 
  • b
  • B.C.
    before Christ, equivalent to B.C.E. or Before Common/Current Era; typically placed after the date as in 200 B.C. (see Chapter 2)
  • B.C.E.
    Before Common/Current Era; equivalent to B.C. (see Chapter 2)
  • B.P.
    before present (see Chapter 2)
  • babbling
    an infant’s repetition of certain syllables, such as ba-ba-ba, that begins when babies are between 6 and 9 months old
  • Ballad
    A poem written in quatrains and A B C B rhyme. The first and third lines contain eight syllables, while the second and fourth lines contain six. According to Robin Skelton, the most common rhyme scheme is iambic tetrameter alternating with iambic trimeter.
  • ballcourt
    arena for Mesoamerican ritualized game associated with fertility, sacrifice and militarism; also found in the Hohokam region of the American Southwest
  • Bandelier National Monument
    Ancestral Puebloans occupied Bandelier from 1150 to 1550 CE. Their homes were carved out of volcanic tuff and their fields were placed strategically on mesa tops.
  • Barboncito
    Navajo chief, know as "Peace Chief" who successfully negotiated the return of the Navajo people to their lands with General Sherman
  • barrios
    neighborhoods of foreign enclaves found at the city of Teotihuacán in Mexico
  • Bartolomé de Ojeda
    Ojeda was the Zia informant for Diego de Vargas during his expedition into Santa Fe.
  • Bascom Affair
    In February 1861, Lieutenant George N. Bascom of the 7th U.S. Infantry traveled to Apache Pass, Arizona, with orders to locate a boy taken captive by Apaches a few months earlier. Curious about the presence of the soldiers, Cochise approached Bascom's camp and was invited into his tent for(...)
  • Base rates
    The likelihood that events occur across a large population.
  • Battle of Agua Prieta
    On November 1, 1915, carrancista forces under General Plutarco Elías Calles routed Pancho Villa's army at Agua Prieta, adjacent to Douglas, Arizona, on the U.S.-Mexico Border. The battle devastated Villa's forces and continued to erode his former reputation for invincibility. Additionally,(...)
  • Battle of Ciudad Juárez
    Over a period of a few weeks in April and May of 1911, maderista forces under Pascual Orozco and Pancho Villa defeated the Mexican Federal army at Ciudad Juárez. The battle illustrated the strength of the Mexican Revolution and forced the aging dictator Porfirio Díaz into exile in Europe.
  • BCE
    A naming abbreviation used in the calendar era, it stands for Before Common Era, which corresponds to BC (Before Christ) in the Anno Domini designation.
  • bed-sharing
    When two or more people sleep in the same bed
  • Bedonkohe
    Translates to "In front of the end people" or "standing in front of the enemy." This Northeastern Chiricahua band lived in the Mogollon Mountains and Tularosa Mountains.  
  • behavioral decision-making theory
    proposes that adolescents and adults both weigh the potential rewards and consequences of an action. However, research has shown that adolescents seem to give more weight to rewards, particularly social rewards, than do adults
  • behavioral genetics
    One of the fastest-growing areas within the field of lifespan development and studies the effects of heredity on behavior
  • behavioral genetics
    The empirical science of how genes and environments combine to generate behavior
  • Behavioral measures
    Measures designed to directly assess what people do.
  • behavioral perspective
    The approach that suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment
  • Behaviorism
    An approach to studying behavior that stresses learning through a system of rewards and punishments.
  • Benito Juárez
    Juárez was a liberal Mexican reformer during the Mexican American War. At one time he denied Santa Ana refuge, later fled to New Orleans, only to return to Mexico in 1855 and became Mexican President two years later. 
  • Benjamin Harrison
    The 23rd President of the U.S., Harrison championed the the creation of the National Forests. As President , he supported anti-trust laws, civil rights, and increased the capacity of the U.S Navy.   
  • Berber Muslims
    An ethnic group indigenous to North Africa.  
  • bereavement
    the period of mourning following the death of someone
  • Bernardo Abeyta
    Founder of the New Mexico Penitente Brotherhood in the late 19th Century. He was also credited with the construction of the Santuario de Chimayó.
  • Bernardo de Gálvez
    A Spanish military leader who was the governor of Louisiana and later Viceroy of New Spain. He also initiated a number of peace establishments with the Apache to lessen Spanish-Apache violence.
  • bias
    inclination towards a particular perspective, a prejudice (see Chapter 1)
  • Biased
    Having preconceived ideas about someone or something
  • biface
    a stone tool that has been worked (pieces removed) from both faces; a projectile point is a kind of biface
  • Bigotes
    Bigotes is the leader of a delegation from Pecos Pueblo who visited Coronado after his conquest of Hawikuh. The Spaniards called him Bigotes because he had a mustache, which was unusual for a Native American. Bigotes later guided Coronado's men on a journey to the Great Plains.
  • Billy the Kid
    A western frontier outlaw, and participant in the Lincoln County Wars.  
  • binge-eating disorder
    an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large quantities of food (often very quickly and to the point of discomfort); a feeling of a loss of control during the binge; experiencing shame, distress or guilt afterwards; and not regularly using unhealthy compensatory(...)
  • bioecological model
    The perspective suggesting that multiple levels of the environment interact with biological potential to influence development
  • Biological Anthropology
    Field of anthropology interested in human biology and how it intersects with human culture.
  • bioturbation
    disturbance of archaeological remains as a result of plant and animal activity (see Chapter 2)
  • Black Legend
    A type of historical writing that demonizes Spanish colonizers, depicting them as cruel and inhumane, sometimes butchering natives and feeding them to dogs.
  • Black sheep effect
    The strong devaluation of ingroup members who threaten the positive image and identity of the ingroup.
  • Blaming the victim
    Interpreting the negative outcomes that occur to others internally so that it seems that they deserved them.
  • Blank verse
    A form that lends itself well to a meditative voice, blank verse is written in iambic pentameter lines that do not rhyme.
  • Blombos Cave
    cave in South Africa with evidence for early use of red ocher about 100,000 years ago; Sites like Blombos suggest the Cognitive Revolution occurred much earlier than 40,000 years ago, where there is a great deal of evidence for modernity appears in the archaeological record in Europe (see Chapter 3)
  • bloom
    a spongy mass of solid metallic iron created by heating iron in a reducing atmosphere with charcoal: FeO + CO = Fe + CO2
  • blue zones
    regions of the world where Dan Buettner claims people live much longer than average
  • Boarding Schools
    Established in the U.S. during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, these schools were intended to culturally assimilate native american youths and children into European American standards 
  • Bodily Self-Recognition
    Ability to recognize one's own body, usually tested using the mark test.
  • body dissatisfaction
    negative subjective evaluation of the weight and shape of one’s own body, which may predict the onset, severity, and treatment outcomes of eating disorders
  • body image
    a person’s idea of how his or her body looks
  • Bonampak
    Classic Maya site in Chiapas known for its murals of war captives and elite bloodletting
  • bone chemistry
    using isotopes preserved in bone collagen to gain an understanding of human diets
  • Booster Literature
    During New Mexico's territorial period, land speculators and other people hoping to create new, prosperous towns published broadsides, pamphlets, and newspaper articles to attract outsiders to relocate to their new settlements. At times, family members sent letters to their relatives in other(...)
  • Bosque Redondo
    A former indian reservation, near Fort Sumner, New Mexico, in which several Native American tribes, Apache and Navajo, were forced to live in by the U.S. Government. The Navajo journey to Bosque Redondo is referred to as the "Long Walk."  
  • Boucher de Perthes
    Boucher de Perthes realized, based on excavations at Sommes, France, that archaeological remains were older than previously thought, beyond early Biblical estimates (see Chapter 1)
  • Bourbon Reforms
    Economic and political legislation introduced by Spanish Kings under the House of Bourbon with the intention of introducing the latest manufacturing technology and European Enlightenment thought to modernize a declining Spain.
  • bow and arrow
    evidence for the bow and arrow becomes prevalent in the Mesolithic; Bow and arrows come into use in the Americas around AD 800
  • brain dead
    when all brain function ceases to occur
  • Brainstorm
    A spontaneous group discussion to produce ideas and ways of solving problems.
  • Brideservice
    When the groom must serve the wife’s family.
  • Bridewealth
    Gift or money from the groom’s family or descent group to the bride’s family.
  • broadside
    A large sheet of paper printed only on one side. Generally used for posters, announcements, advertisementsit was a common form of printed material between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries.
  • Buffalo Soldiers
    African American army soldiers who after the Civil War, were posted to the American West to fight the indian wars and protect settlers. Indians referred to them as Buffalo because of their dark skin, curly hair and courage on the battlefield.
  • bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by binge eating and subsequent purging, usually by induced vomiting and/or use of laxatives
  • bultos
    Works of art, statues, figures, etc.
  • Butterfield Overland Mail Company
    Longest stagecoach line in world history at approximately 2,812 miles. Major factor in settlement and development of Arkansas and American west.   
  • c
  • C.E.
    Current/Common Era; equivalent to AD (see Chapter 2)
  • Cabildo
    A Spanish form of municipal or town council government during the colonial and postcolonial periods.  
  • Cahokia
    large urban Mississippian center located in Illinois, not far from present-day St. Louis Missouri
  • Calendar Round
    combination of the Haab and Tzolk'in which repeated every 52 years
  • Call Systems
    Vocal communication in animals.
  • Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
    "The Royal Road," a trade route set by the Spanish that connected Mexico City to outposts and settlements further northward in Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico.
  • canal irrigation
    human-made waterway system to support agricultural fields
  • Cannon Air Force Base
    Originally established in 1942 as Army Air Base, Clovis, the facility was initially used to train bomber units for service in the South Pacific during World War II. Although Cannon Air Force Base was slated for closure in 2005, Senator Pete Dominici and Governor Bill Richardson pressured(...)
  • Canyon de Chelly
    Canyon de Chelly was the home of the Navajo tribe until the New Mexico governor Lt. Antonio Narbona invaded by force in 1805. In 1863 Kit Carson sent some of his troops to put an end to the canyon and defeat the Navajo tribe, by doing so they led them to surrender and move to Bosque Redondo, NM.
  • Caption
    Text that describes an image. It appears outside the image, usually below it.
  • caravels
    A small, highly maneuverable ship designed and used by the Portuguese in their exploration of West Africa and the Atlantic during the 15th Century.
  • Carl Gorman
    Carl Gorman was a Navajo Code Talker during World War II to keep the Japanese from cracking their code for the Marines while at Guadalcanal. Gorman passed away in 1998 at the age of 90 and is remembered for "fighting for the right to speak."
  • Case study
    Exploring a single case or situation in great detail. Information may be gathered with the use of observation, interviews, testing, or other methods to uncover as much as possible about a person or situation
  • Casmiro Barela
    Born in New Mexico, Barela became a territorial legislator and helped craft the State of Colorado Constitution. 
  • caste system
    A system of racial categorization used in the Spanish colonies in which those who claimed pure Spanish blood (limpieza de sangre) stood at the top, followed by people of mixed-race heritage that served as peasant laborers or house servants. At the bottom were slaves of African descent.
  • casting metal
    means melting the metal and shaping it in a mold
  • Catalectic
    An incomplete line of metrical poetry in which the last syllable or foot is dropped.
  • Çatalhöyük
    early Neolithic village site on the Konya Plain of south-central Turkey; contains the earliest known interior house in the world, paintings and Ian Hodder heads up excavations at the site
  • Catharsis
    The idea that engaging in less harmful aggressive actions will reduce the tendency to aggress later in a more harmful way.
  • Catlectic
    An incomplete line of metrical poetry in which the last syllable or foot is dropped.
  • Causal attribution
    The process of trying to determine the causes of people’s behavior
  • CE
    A naming abbreviation used in the calendar era, it stands for Common Era, which corresponds to AD in the Anno Domini designation.
  • centenarians
    people aged 100 or older
  • Central Acropolis at Tik'al
    area at Tikal, Guatemala where lords lived and conducted their activities; located south of the great plaza, spreads over four acres and contains 42 multistory buildings
  • Central Kalahari Game Reserve
    Refuge created for wildlife that resulted in the eviction of Kalahari foragers
  • Central traits
    The traits of warm and cold.
  • Centralists
    In the years following Mexico's Independence, Centralists were those who favored a strong central government in Mexico City with little power for regional or local jurisdictions. They generally supported a return to the colonial social, religious, and political status quo. Federalists, on the(...)
  • centration
    the act of focusing all attention on one characteristic or dimension of a situation, while disregarding all others
  • cephalocaudal
    Refers to growth and development that occurs from the head down
  • cesarean section
    Is the use of surgery to deliver babies through the mother’s abdomen and uterus
  • Chaco Canyon
    a World Heritage Ancestral Pueblo site located in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico; is known for its large Great Houses like Pueblo Bonito
  • Chaco cylinder vessels
    cylinder-shaped vessels found at Chacoan great houses which contain evidence of liquid chocolate, a Mesoamerican product
  • Chamuscado-Rodríguez Expedition
    An expedition in 1581 led by Francisco Sanchez, called "El Chamuscado," and Friar Augustin Rodriguez that visited the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico for the first time since Coronado's expedition. This small encounter would revive Spanish interest in the region.
  • Characters
    The people who inhabit the story and move it forward.
  • Charles Beaubien
    Beaubien was a Canadian fur-trapper who had migrated to New Mexico in 1823. Four years later, he married Taos native María Paula Lobato and opened a mercantile business. In an effort to evade taxes imposed by the Mexican national government in 1840, he allied with Guadalupe Miranda (secretary(...)
  • Charles Drew
    First Lieutenant Charles Drew was appointed as U.S. Indian Agent to the Chiricahua Apaches at Fort McRae in 1869. Historians have characterized him as one of the best agents assigned to the tribe. The Chiricahua people, including Victorio and Loco, trusted Drew due to his efforts to attend to(...)
  • Charles I. McNary
    McNary was the Oregon Senate Minority Leader who claimed that a full quorum was not present in an effort to protest Senator Dennis Chávez's recitation of the Oath of Office.
  • Charles Siringo
    Siringo was a Pinkerton Detective Agent most noted for providing information that led to the killing of Butch Cassidy and Sundance Kid. In 1916, Siringo was a New Mexico Ranger and a writer.   
  • chattel slavery
    Chattel slavery is the type of slavery that was common in the American South prior to the Civil War. Unlike other forms of bondage or captivity, chattel slaves were considered as no more than property to be bought and sold at the whims of their owners.
  • Cherry Picking
    Selecting the evidence that confirms your hypothesis while ignoring results that do not.
  • Chester Nez
    Last original Navajo Code Talker to serve in World War II. In 2001, Mr. Nez received the Congressional Medal of Honor from President George H. Bush.  
  • Chester Nimitz
    High ranking and respected Admiral during WWII in the Pacific Theater. Along with MacArthur, Nimitz helped seal the U.S. victories in the Pacific.  
  • Ch'i-Yen-Shih
    In this Chinese pattern, each line contains seven monosyllabic words with a caesura after each fourth word. The rhyme scheme is comprised of the pattern A B C B.
  • chiaroscuro
    use of contrast between dark and light to create an artistic effect
  • Chichimeca Wars
    A military conflict between the Spanish and Chichimeca natives that lasted from 1550 to 1590. It was the longest and costliest war in the history of New Spain.
  • Chichimecas
    Spanish for "lineage of the dog," the term referred to nomadic natives of Mexico and the American Southwest, used in a derogatory manner by the Spaniards since they often attacked trade convoys.
  • Chihenne
    Apache tribe, translates to "Red Painted People."
  • Child Betrothal
    A system in which children are promised in marriage.
  • Chimayó Rebellion
    Alternatively called the Chimayó Rebellion, the Revolt of 1837, or the guerra de los chimayosos, the 1837 conflict was an outgrowth of the Centralist-Federalst political divides that precipitated Texans to declare independence from Mexico. In New Mexico, grievances were much more localized.(...)
  • chinampa
    A Mesoamerican agricultural method using small, rectangular areas of fertile land to grow crops in the shallow lake beds of the Valley of Mexico.
  • chlamydia
    a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium chlamydia trachomatis
  • Christopher “Kit” Carson
    A legend during his own lifetime, Kit Carson was known as a heroic western guide, trapper, and soldier. Although he was deeply conflicted about the order to force the Navajo people on the Long Walk to the Bosque Redondo in 1863, Carson carried out a brutal scorched-earth campaign that forced(...)
  • chromosome
    A DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism
  • chronic inflammation
    when the body’s immune system is working to fight off infections and toxins for prolonged periods of time, having a negative impact on tissues and organs
  • Chronological order
    Presenting an idea or story in the order in which the events happened, from first to last event.
  • chronosystem
    The environmental events and transitions that occur throughout a child’s life, including any socio-historical events
  • chunkey stone
    a game played by throwing a spear at a rolling stone in an attempt to land the spear where the stone falls over; evidence for the game of chunkey exists at the Mississippian site of Cahokia
  • Cicuye
    Cicuye Pueblo (also called Pecos Pueblo by the Spanish) is located about 25 miles east of Santa Fe, New Mexico. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado brought his army to Cicuye after in the late 1500’s and early 1600’s the Spanish started building missions here.
  • Cinquain
    A five-line stanza with the syllable count 2 4 6 8 2.
  • circumcision
    The surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis
  • cisgender
    an umbrella term used to describe people whose sense of personal identity and gender corresponds with their birth sex
  • Citation
    The information that documents the source from which an author took content. Citations that are in a print book’s footnotes and end notes are stored in Remarks.
  • Ciudad Chihuahua
    A present-day Mexican municipality that was a prosperous mining town along the Camino Real during the the 1700s. Its development attracted settlers and trade that would reinvigorate the New Mexico colony.
  • Claims
    The details, facts, and explanations that help clarify the main point of an essay 
  • clans
    are lineages commonly tied to a distant ancestor, frequently an animal; examples include Scottish clans and Pueblo clans
  • Classic Maya
    Mesoamerican culture known for its writing system, calendars, competing polities, a masonry temples (AD 200-900)
  • classical conditioning
    A type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response
  • classification
    the arrangement of information into categories or classes
  • Cleofas Jaramillo
    A late 19th and early 20th century New Mexican historian. She was actively involved in preservation of the traditions and cultures of New Mexico.   
  • Clever Hans Effect
    Picking up on subtle cues to elicit the appropriate response.
  • Cliché
    A phrase that is so overused that its use results in unoriginal and unimaginative expression.
  • Cliff Fragua
      Jemez Pueblo sculptor commissioned by the state of New Mexico to create a statue of Po'pay. The statue is the second work representing New Mexico and 100th of the collection for the Statuary Hall of the U.S. Capitol.   
  • climacteric
    term used to describe the menopausal period and hormonal changes associated with the gradual change in ovarian production
  • clinical death
    when the individual is brain dead
  • Clinton Greaves
    For his actions as a Buffalo Soldier in the United States Army, Clinton Greaves received the Medal of Honor after the American Indian Wars.
  • Clinton P. Anderson
    Clinton Presba Anderson was a well-known Democratic politician in New Mexico. He served as U.S. Representative from 1941 to 1945, as the Secretary of Agriculture from 1945 to 1948, and as a U.S. Senator of New Mexico from 1949 to 1973.
  • clique
    used to describe a group of persons who interact with each other more regularly and intensely than others in the same setting. Cliques are distinguished from “crowds” in that their members interact with one another
  • Close relationships
    Relationships between people that are characterized by loving, caring, commitment, and intimacy.
  • Closing paragraph
    The final paragraph in an essay, which should not introduce new claims, but should instead wrap up the paper, explain how the paper proves the thesis, or explain the paper opens up additional thinking about your subject.
  • Clyde Tingley
    Tingley served as the 11th Governor of New Mexico and was a proponent of Roosevelt's New Deal policies. As Mayor of Albuquerque, he is well know from bringing Siberian Elms to the state, frequently called "Tingley Elms."   
  • co-sleeping
    A custom in which parents and their children (usually infants) sleep together in the same room
  • Coahuila y Texas
    While under Mexican rule between 1821 and 1836, Texas was not recognized as an independent state or province within the republic. Instead, it was part of a dual-jurisdiction connected to the province of Coahuila. The capital city was at Saltillo, something that Texan leaders, both Anglo and(...)
  • Cochise
    Chokonen (the central Chiricahua band) headman Cochise narrowly escaped death at the hands of Lieutenant Bascom in early 1861. With his father-in-law Mangas Coloradas, he waged war against the U.S. military throughout the early 1860s. In the early 1870s he negotiated the settlement of his(...)
  • cochlear implant
    electronic device that consists of a microphone, a speech processor, and an electrode array to directly stimulate the auditory nerve to transmit information to the brain
  • codices
    Maya bark paper books
  • Cognitive accessibility
    The extent to which a schema is activated in memory and thus likely to be used in information processing.
  • Cognitive dissonance
    The discomfort that occurs when we behave in ways that we see as inappropriate, such as when we fail to live up to our own expectations.
  • Cognitive heuristics
    Information-processing rules of thumb that enable us to think in ways that are quick and easy but that may sometimes lead to error.
  • cognitive neuroscience
    The scientific field that is concerned with the study of the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition, with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes
  • cognitive perspective
    an approach that focuses on the process that allows people to know, understand, and think about the world
  • Cognitive Revolution
    the shift to modern human behavior including art, ritual, complex tools, music, and symbolic thought. The Cognitive Revolution has roots going back 100,000 years ago as evidenced by the use of red ocher in South Africa (Chapter 3)
  • cohabitation
    an arrangement where two people who have not married live together
  • Cohort
    A group of people who are born at roughly the same period in a particular society. Cohorts share histories and contexts for living
  • Collective action
    The attempts on the part of one group to change the social status hierarchy by improving the status of their own group relative to others.
  • Collective Efforescence
    Intense feeling of togetherness and ecstatic excitement that accompanies ritual.
  • Collectivism
    The idea that people should be more fundamentally connected with others and thus more oriented toward interdependence.
  • colostrum
    The first secretion from the mammary glands after giving birth, rich in antibodies
  • Columbian Exchange
    The intercontinental exchange of goods, disease, language, and technology between the Americas, Africa, and Eurasia after Christopher Columbus's initial voyage to the New World in 1492.
  • Coming of Age Ceremonies
    Rituals that mark the transition from childhood to adulthood.
  • Commitment
    The feelings and actions that keep partners working together to maintain the relationship.
  • Common-causal variables
    Variables that are not part of the research hypothesis but that cause both the predictor and the outcome variable and thus produce the observed correlation between them.
  • Common ingroup identity
    The attempt to reduce prejudice by creating a superordinate categorization.
  • Communal relationships
    Close relationships in which partners suspend their need for equity and exchange, giving support to the partner in order to meet his or her needs, and without consideration of the costs to themselves.
  • Communicators
    Senders and receivers of messages in a communicative interaction. Because we are continuously sending and receiving verbal and/or nonverbal messages, we are simultaneously both a sender and receiver in interactions. For example, in a face-to-face interaction, the other communicator may be(...)
  • compadrazgo
    Compadrazgo was (and is) a system of spiritual kinship that is very similar to godparentage. In New Mexico, the practice dated back to the arrival of Spanish conquistadores and it continues even today. During the nineteenth century, compadrazgo involved more than choosing godparents for a(...)
  • Companionate love
    Love that is based on friendship, mutual attraction, common interests, mutual respect, and concern for each other’s welfare.
  • Comparison
    Discusses elements that are similar 
  • compartmentalize
    The organization and division of Pueblo culture to preserve individual identity at the face of Spanish and Christian encroachment.
  • complicated grief
    when feelings of grief are persistent and incapacitating
  • Comprehension
    Discusses elements that are similar
  • Comprehensive Orders for the New Discoveries
    This body of legislation gave Catholic missionaries the primary role in the colonization process. The regulations expressly prohibited the use of the word “conquest,” in favor of the more diplomatic term “pacification.” Royal officials forbade unsanctioned colonization expeditions in hopes of(...)
  • Concept
    In advertising, the theme of a brand, which is relayed through the message, the product, the color choices, the layout design, and the graphic elements 
  • Conceptual variables
    The characteristics that we are trying to measure.
  • Concision
    The art of using the fewest words possible to convey an idea
  • Conclusion
    The final paragraph in an essay, which should not introduce new claims, but should instead wrap up the paper, explain how the paper proves the thesis, or explain the paper opens up additional thinking about your subject.
  • concrete operational stage
    The stage in which children can think logically about real (concrete) events, have a firm grasp on the use of numbers and start to employ memory strategies, lasts from about 7 to 11 years old
  • concrete operational stage of cognitive development
    Piaget’s stage of development during middle childhood that emphasizes the use of logical thought, especially as applied to concrete, or physical objects
  • Concrete
    Words that refer to something with physical properties that can be experiences with the five senses such as “chair,” water,” or “cat.”
  • Conditioned Response
    When a response becomes associated with a stimulus.
  • conductive hearing loss
    failure in the vibration of the eardrum and/or movement of the ossicles
  • Confirmation bias
    The tendency for people to favor information that confirms their expectations, regardless of whether the information is true.
  • Conflict
    The primary problem or obstacle that unfolds in the plot that the protagonist must solve or overcome by the end of the narrative
  • Conformity
    The change in beliefs, opinions, and behaviors as a result of our perceptions about what other people believe or do.
  • congruence
    An instance or point of agreement or correspondence between the ideal self and the real self in Rogers’ humanistic personality theory
  • conservation
    The idea that even if you change the appearance of something, it is still equal in size as long as nothing has been removed or added, usually develops during the concrete operational stage
  • Conservation Refugees
    People evicted from ancestral lands in the name of animal conservation
  • Consonance
    Edward Hirsch defines this as “the audible repetition of consonant sounds in words encountered near each other whose vowel sounds are different”—flower-fades-fruit: fow-fay-frew.
  • conspicuous consumption
    extravagant public displays of wealth and power
  • Constitution of 1812
    This Spanish constitution established the principles of universal male suffrage, the constitutional monarchy, freedom of the press, and supported many liberal policies for the country.  
  • Constitution of 1824
    Established the rights and responsibilities of the United Mexican States.
  • Constitution of 1836
    Enacted under President Santa Anna in 183, the Siete Leyes (seven laws) were constitutional changes provided for a stronger federal government oversight and administration for the first Mexican Republic.
  • Constitutional Amendments
    Changes to the U.S. Constitution made though Congress. Important constitutional amendments can make monumental changes in the laws of the U.S. such as the 13th Amendment which abolished slavery. 
  • constructivist perspective
    based on the work of Piaget, a quantitative, stage-theory approach. This view hypothesizes that adolescents’ cognitive improvement is relatively sudden and drastic, as adolescents learn by acting on their environment and they actively construct knowledge
  • consul
    An official representative of one nation to another. Many U.S cites contain consulates from other nations. For example, there is a Mexican Consulate in Albuquerque. During the dispute over repatriation in the late 1840s, Mexican officials appointed Manuel Armendáriz as consul to New Mexico.
  • Contact hypothesis
    The idea that intergroup contact will reduce prejudice,
  • Content
    Refers to all the written substance in a document.   
  • content analysis
    Involves looking at media such as old texts, pictures, commercials, lyrics or other materials to explore patterns or themes in culture
  • Context
    The circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed.
  • context
    location of an artifact and the surrounding matrix (see Chapter 1)
  • Context-Specific
    The idea that human language is reliant on cultural context for interpretation.
  • contextual perspective
    A theory that considers the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, and social worlds
  • continuity theory
    suggests that as people age, they continue to view the self in much of the same way as they did when they were younger
  • continuous development
    the idea that development is a progressive and cumulative process, gradually improving on existing skills
  • Contrast
    Discusses elements that are different.
  • Contributions dilemma
    When the short-term costs of a behavior lead individuals to avoid performing it, and this may prevent the long-term benefits that would have occurred if the behaviors had been performed.
  • control beliefs
    the belief that an individual can influence life outcomes, encompassing estimations of relevant external constraints and our own capabilities
  • control group
    A comparison group that is equivalent to the experimental group, but is not given the independent variable
  • Controlled cognition
    When we deliberately size up and think about something—for instance another person.
  • Controlling idea
    The main idea upon which a writer builds their thesis statement.
  • controversial
    children who are either strongly liked or strongly disliked by quite a few peers
  • conventional moral development
    stages 3 and 4 of moral development where morality is internalized, and the concern is on society norms
  • Conversión de San Pedro
    In the 1620s, Franciscan leaders dubbed the New Mexico mission field the "Conversión de San Pedro," hearkening to the Conversion of St. Peter that was celebrated in Colonial Spanish territories on January 25. 
  • Cooperation
    When we trust the people or groups with whom we are interacting and are willing to communicate and share with others.
  • correlation
    The relationship between two or more variables; when two variables are correlated, one variable changes as the other does
  • correlation coefficient
    Number from -1 to +1, indicating the strength and direction of the relationship between variables, and usually represented by r
  • Correlational research
    To search for and test hypotheses about the relationships between two or more variables.
  • correlational research
    Research design with the goal of identifying patterns of relationships, but not cause and effect
  • cortés
    Word meaning 'polite' in English.
  • cortex
    The outer layers of the brain in humans and other mammals. Most thinking, feeling, and sensing involves the cortex
  • Counterargument
    An argument that is opposed to another argument.
  • Counterfactual thinking
    The tendency to think about events according to what might have been.
  • County Home Demonstration Agents
    Beginning in the 1910s, County Home Demonstration Agents traveled throughout rural New Mexico to teach rural nuevomexicanas "modern" methods of preserving food (canning rather than drying), practicing hygeine, and rearing children. New Deal Agencies like the WPA provided new funds for County(...)
  • Couplet
    A stanza comprised of two lines.
  • Cover story
    A false statement of what the research was really about.
  • Craft Specialization
    When people produce goods in exchange for food.
  • craft specialization
    when a portion of society is devoted full-time to making goods
  • Craig Vincent
    Craig Vincent was a civil rights activist in Taos, best known for his marraige to the beloved New Mexico folk singer Jenny Vincent. The couple supported Chicano rights and the efforts of Taos Pueblo to secure their claim to Blue Lake. Jenny sang for striking miners in southern New Mexico, an(...)
  • criados
    Captive children from the "rescate" practice.
  • criollo
    A person of Spanish heritage born and raised in the colonies.
    a gene-editing tool
  • Cristóbal de Oñate
    Father of Juan de Oñate and a high ranking official in the New Spanish colonies, largely credited for the founding of the city of Guadalajara in 1531.
  • Critical Thinking
    The act of  being openly engaged with a text while considering its multiple possibilities.  
  • cross-sectional research
    Used to examine behavior in participants of different ages who are tested at the same point in time; may confound age and cohort differences
  • crowds
    large groups of adolescents defined by their shared image and reputation
  • crucible
    is a ceramic or metal container in which metals are melted
  • crystallized intelligence
    knowledge, skills, and experience acquired over a lifetime, accessible via memory and expressible in word/number form
  • Cuauhtémoc
    An Aztec Emperor who ascended the throne in 1520 at the height of Spanish conquest. He was captured and tortured several times and later made a puppet figure under Spanish rule.
  • Cuerno Verde
    "Green Horn" in English and Tabivo Naritgant in his native language, he was a leader of the Comanche during the late 18th Century who fought against and was eventually killed by the Spanish.
  • Culiacán
    The northwestern Mexican city where Cabeza de Vaca ended his expedition and Coronado began his search of the Cities of Gold.
  • Cultural Anthropology
    Field of anthropology interested in human culture
  • Cultural Relativism
    Suspending judgment of a culture in order to understand why people do what they do
  • cultural resource management (CRM)
    professional field that is aimed at conserving and managing archaeological and historical sites (see Chapter 2)
  • Cultural Transmission
    Behavior that is learned. Humans learn the language of their environment.
  • Cultural Universals
    Features that are common to all human societies
  • Culture
    Traditions, beliefs, and values tramsmitted through learning
  • Culture
    A group of people, normally living within a given geographical region, who share a common set of social norms, including religious and family values and moral beliefs.
  • Culture
    Blueprint or guideline shared by a group of people that specifies how to live; passed down from generation to generation; learned from parents and others
  • Culture Shock
    Anxiety as a result of being immersed in a foreign culture
  • curation
    storage and conservation of archaeological remains and field notes (see Chapter 1)
  • cutting date
    refers to the year a beam was cut
  • d
  • Dactyl
    ΄ ˘ ˘ A heavy stress followed by two light stresses.
  • Daina
    This Latvian form consists of a quatrain of trochaic octometer lines with feminine endings. Although there are no end rhymes, alliteration and internal rhymes are common.
  • Daniel Boone
    An American explorer who carved out the first trails that allowed settlement of lands west of the Appalachians. 
  • Daniel Webster
    Best known as a constitutional scholar and attorney, Webster was a prominent figure supporting preservation of the Union during the years preceding the Civil War.  
  • Data
    Pieces of information.
  • Database
    A collection of (usually) organized information in a regular structure, usually but not necessarily in a machine-readable format accessible by a computer.
  • David Cargo
    Cargo served as New Mexico Governor between 1967 and 1971. He was away fro the state during the Alianza courthouse raid in June of 1967, so Lieutenant Governor E. Lee Francis coordinated efforts to force Tijerina's surrender. As governor, Cargo's most prominent legacy was his creation of the(...)
  • debt peonage
    A person's pledge of their labor or services as payment for a debt. It can be transferred to future generations if the debt is unpaid. 
  • Deductive Reasoning
    Beginning an argument with a general principle, which is referred to as a major premise, then a related premise is applied to the major premise and a conclusion is formed.
  • deductive reasoning
    reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, though logical steps to figure out (deduce) specifics. Also called top-down processing
  • Deena J. González
    An accomplished historian and New Mexico native who has done extensive work exposing the historical contributions of women and people of color to the state of New Mexico.
  • Deep History
    an approach to studying the past that rejects the idea that writing systems are a useful way to divide up time. Deep History considers all of the past to be just history. It also examines past behaviors in order to shed light on the current human condition (see Chapter 1)
  • defense mechanisms
    Psychological strategies that are unconsciously used to protect a person from anxiety arising from unacceptable thoughts or feelings
  • Deities
    Supreme supernatural beings.
  • delayed gratification
    the ability to hold out for a larger reward by forgoing a smaller immediate reward
  • Delgadito
    Delgadito was the headman of the Canoncito band among the Navajo people. In 1863, his band was the first to surrender to Kit Carson at Fort Wingate and then make the Long Walk to Bosque Redondo.  
  • delirium
    an abrupt change in the brain that causes mental confusion and emotional disruption. It makes it difficult to think, remember, sleep, pay attention, and more
  • demandingness
    the degree to which a parent controls their child’s behavior
  • dementia
    a cause of neurocognitive disorder, characterized by progressive and gradual cognitive deficits due to severe cerebral atrophy
  • Democrats, Northern
    During the presidential election of 1846, the Democratic Party was split into three factions. The Northern Democrats supported the Lincoln Administration. Northern Democrats resisted slavery, while Southern Democrats supported slavery. 
  • Democrats, Southern
    In the latter half of the nineteenth century, Southern Democrats in Congress tended to support policies that promised to maintain segregation and "slavery under another name" in their home jurisdictions.
  • dendrites
    Fibers that extend from neurons and receive electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons
  • dendrochronology
    The science of dating tree rings to determine historical weather and geological patterns in the area surrounding the tree's habitat at a given time.
  • dendrochronology
    tree-ring dating; dating of archaeological specimens based on the annual growth of tree rings (see Chapter 2)
  • Dennis Chávez
    Democrat Dennis Chávez served as one of New Mexico's Senators between 1934 and his death in 1964. He worked tirelessly to bring federal funds to the state, particularly in the form of the Hispanic New Deal during the Depression era.
  • dental caries
  • deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    A helix-shaped molecule made up of nucleotide base pairs
  • Dependent variable
    The variable that is measured after the manipulations have occurred.
  • dependent variable
    The outcome or variable that is supposedly affected by the independent variable
  • descriptive studies
    Research focused on describing an occurrence
  • Desensitization
    The tendency to become used to, and thus less influenced by, a stimulus.
  • deviant peer contagion
    process by which peers reinforce problem behavior by laughing or showing other signs of approval that then increase the likelihood of future problem behavior
  • dialectical thought
    the ability to reason from multiple perspectives and synthesize various viewpoints in order to come up with new ideas
  • Diction
    Word choice.
  • Diego de Archuleta
    Diego de Archuleta was a politician and military officer during the Mexican period in New Mexico history. During the U.S.-Mexico War, he served as Governor Armijo's second-in-command and he favored armed resistance to the American occupation. His opposition to the U.S. presence in New Mexico(...)
  • Diego de Vargas
    Vargas served as the governor of New Mexico from 1688 to 1697. He successfully reconquered the territory after the 1680 Pueblo Revolt.
  • Diego Dionisio de Peñalosa
    Peñalosa served as the 19th Spanish governor of New Mexico. His comparatively positive treatment of the natives earned him hostility from the evangelizing missionaries. After being declared a heretic and later forced into exile, he resisted Spanish colonizing efforts in the New World by siding(...)
  • Diego Dionisio de Peñalosa
    Peñalosa served as the 19th Spanish governor of New Mexico. His comparatively positive treatment of the natives earned him hostility from the evangelizing missionaries. After being declared a heretic and later forced into exile, he resisted Spanish colonizing efforts in the New World by siding(...)
  • diffusion
    refers to the process of cultural traits spreading from one region to another
  • Dimeter
    A two-foot line
  • Diné
    The Navajo name for their nation and people, Diné literally means "the people.
  • Dinétah
    The traditional homeland of the Navajo tribe which includes northwestern New Mexico, southwestern Colorado, southeastern Utah, and northeastern Arizona.
  • direct historical approach
    making inferences about the past based on a connection between modern and past people
  • discontinuous development
    idea that development takes place in unique stages and occurs at specific times or ages
  • Discrimination
    Unjustified negative behaviors toward members of outgroups based on their group membership.
  • disenfranchised grief
    grief that is not acknowledged by others
  • disengagement theory
    suggests that during late adulthood, the individual and society mutually withdraw
  • disorganized attachment (type D)
    a type of attachment that is marked by an infant’s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s departure and return
  • Displaced aggression
    Occurs when negative emotions caused by one person trigger aggression toward a different person.
  • Displacement
    Ability to communicate ideas that are not in the immediate environment or that exist only in the imagination.
  • Distributive fairness
    Our judgments about whether or not a party is receiving a fair share of the available rewards.
  • divided attention
    the ability to pay attention to two or more stimuli at the same time; this ability improves during adolescence
  • dizygotic
    Derived from two separate ova
  • Dodoitsu
    This Japanese form is composed of four lines with the syllable count 7 7 7 5. There is no rhyme or set meter.
  • Dolní Věstonice
    An archaeological site in the Czech Republic with evidence for early ritual.
  • Dolni Vestonice
    Upper Paleolithic open-air site in the Czech Republic; known for shaman's hut, Venus of Vestonice, and triple burial
  • Dolores Huerta
    Labor leader and activist, who along with César Chávez founded the National Farmworkers Association, later known as the United Farm Workers union. 
  • domestic context
    a household
  • domestication
    altering or interfering with the reproduction of another species to produce favorable changes for humans
  • Dominant response
    The action that we are most likely to emit in any given situation.
  • Domingo Jironza Pétriz de Cruzate
    A titular Spanish governor of New Mexico from 1683-1686 and 1689-1691. He failed to reconquer the territory from the Pueblo Natives.
  • don/doña
    Don is an honorific title used in Spanish language to show deference to people considered to be most powerful in a local society. The use of the title could also simply show that a person held a title of nobility at whatever level. Don was the form used to address men; doña used to address(...)
  • dopamine
    a neurotransmitter in the brain that plays a role in pleasure and the reward system; increases in the limbic system and later in the prefrontal cortex during adolescence
  • Dorothy McKibbin
    Administrative Assistant in the Los Alamos Labs during the Manhattan Project. McKibbin was in charge of providing those working at Los Alamos with credentials and coordinated shipping and logistical issues.  
  • double-blind
    A research design in which neither the participants nor the researchers know whether an individual is assigned to the experimental group or the control group
  • Douglas MacArthur
    A five star army general who lead the Pacific Theatre battles during U.S. World War II. After Japanese surrender, McArthur was named the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers and helped the Japanese rebuild their nation: economically and politically. 
  • Dowry
    Good and wealth given by the bride's family to the groom's family.
  • Dowry Death
    When the groom's family tries get more dowry by abusing the wife. The practice can result in death or suicide.
  • dual process model/dual processing
    the notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional processing of stimuli and one for analytic reasoning
  • dualism
    absolute, black and white, right and wrong type of thinking
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower
    During World War II, Eisenhower led D-Day, the massive invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe. After the war, he ran for president and served two terms, during which time he managed Cold War tensions with the Soviet Union, ended the Korean War, created an Interstate Highway System, and strengthened(...)
  • dyslexia
    a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities
  • e
  • E. Lee Francis
    Born of mixed Laguna Pueblo, Scottish, and Lebanese heritage, Francis served as New Mexico's Lieutenant Governor between 1967 and 1971 during the administration of Governor David Cargo. Due to a constitutional stipulation that requires the Lieutenant Governor to take charge of affairs when the(...)
  • earspools
    plugs worn in the ears; very common in the Americas; Hopewell ear spools were made from native copper
  • earthworks
    term used to refer to mounds constructed from sediment; can take the form of embankments (linear mounds), enclosures, effigy mounds (in the shape of animals), conical (cone-like) mounds, and platform mounds. Hopewell and Mississippian Traditions constructed earthworks
  • ecofacts
    organic and environmental remains resulting from human activity such as charcoal, pollen and animal bones (see Chapter 2)
  • ecological systems model
    Brofenbrenner’s theory that we all belong to many communities and are influenced in the context of multiple environments, also known as ecological systems; organized into five levels of external influence: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem
  • ecological systems theory
    Urie Bronfenbrenner’s theory stressing the importance of studying a child in the context of multiple environments, organized into five levels of external influence: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem
  • Ecueracapa
    "Leather Cape" in English, a Comanche leader who was instrumental in negotiating an alliance with the Spanish in the late 18th Century.
  • ED-XRF
    stands for energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence and is used to identify what an object is made of. X-rays are fired at an object's surface, affecting the inner shells atoms of the sample. Energy is emitted specific to each element.
  • Edgar Lee Hewett
    American archaeologist and anthropologist, whose area of expertise was Native American Southwest peoples and art. Hewett is given credit for the formation of and preservation of ancient native cultures in Bandelier National Monument and Chaco Canyon   
  • Editing
    A step in the revision process that includes fixing typos and grammatical errors.
  • Edmund G. Ross
    Ross served one time as governor of the New Mexico Territory. He voted against convicting President Andrew Johnson of "high crimes and misdemeanors" which allowed Johnson to stay in office, but he was subsequently impeached. 
  • Edward R. Murrow
    Prominent American broadcast journalist. During broadcasts in World War II, Murrow brought the war to American homes via the radio while on location at many combat sites. "Good Night, and Good Luck" was his signature sign off.  
  • Edward Richard Sprigg Canby
    When the Civil War began in 1861, Canby was promoted to the rank of Colonel of the 19th U.S. Infantry and given the post of commander over the Department of New Mexico. Despite a defeat at the Battle of Valverde, Canby's Union forces repelled the Confederate advance into New Mexico under(...)
  • Edward Teller
    Known as "the father of the hydrogen bomb," Teller was an early member of the Manhattan Project team tasked to create the atomic bomb. 
  • Edwin Johnson
    A Governor of Colorado who was highly critical of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal policies 
  • Edwin Vose Sumner
    Sumner was a United States Army General who served in the U.S.-Mexican War. Fort Sumner, named after the general, was built to protect the settlers in the Pecos Valley from Native Americans.  
  • effigy mounds
    earthen mounds in the form of animals; the Hopewell Tradition created effigy mounds
  • Egalitarian
    When people have roughly equal wealth and power
  • ego
    The part of the self that helps balance the id and superego by satisfying the id’s desires in a rational way
  • egocentrism
    The child is not able to take the perspective of others, typically observed during the preoperational stage
  • egocentrism
    the tendency of young children to think that everyone sees things in the same way as the child
  • eight stages of psychosocial development
    Erikson’s stages of trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame/doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority, identity vs. role confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, and integrity vs. despair
  • El Paso del Norte
    Today known as La Ciudad Juárez, or simply Juárez, it is a bi-national city on the US-Mexican border. Spanish colonizers took refuge here during the 1680 Pueblo Revolt.
  • El Teatro Norteño
    Roberto Archuleta founded El Teatro Norteño, where members of El Partido de la Raza Unida could act in plays related to issues in New Mexico produced by Luis Valdez.
  • El Turco
    The Turk, a prisoner of a Plains Indian tribe who told Coronado about the legend of Quivira, a city of infinite wealth.
  • Election of 1844
    During the U.S. Presidential Election of 1844, westward expansion was the major campaign issue for Democrat James K. Polk and Whig Henry Clay. Polk championed expansion on all fronts, making his rallying cry “54° 40’ or fight!” Polk considered his electoral victory to be a mandate in support(...)
  • Electroencephalography
    A technique that records the electrical activity produced by the brain’s neurons through the use of electrodes that are placed around the research participant’s head.
  • Elegy
    An elegy is a lament for the dead and contains the character of sadness and loss. It is considered a public poem that when done best, according Mark Strand and Evan Boland, sets the customs of death in a particular culture against the decorum and private feelings of thespeaker.
  • Eleuterio Baca
    Baca spoke and published poetry in the Spanish language. In the 1890s he was the associate editor of La Voz del Pueblo in Las Vegas, New Mexico.
  • Elfego Baca
    Born in Socorro, NM on 1865 Elfego Baca was best known as a lawyer, politician and a gunman. At age 19 he became a sheriff peace officer.   
  • Eliot Porter
    Porter was a nature photographer and contemporary of Georgia O'Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz.
  • Elisha Long
    Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, New Mexico Territory 1885-1890.   
  • elite
    people with a disproportionate amount of wealth and power compared to the general populace
  • Ella Boyer
    Wife of Francis Boyer, and an educator.  
  • embryo
    A multi-celled organism between two and eight weeks after fertilization
  • emerging adulthood
    life stage extending from approximately ages 18 to 25, during which the foundation of an adult life is gradually constructed in love and work. Primary features include identity explorations, instability, focus on self-development, feeling incompletely adult, and a broad sense of possibilities
  • Emil Fritz
    A German immigrant to the United States, Fritz served as a Captain with the California Column commanded by General Carleton in 1862. Following his efforts to secure New Mexico for the Union during the Civil War, he purchased land near Fort Stanton and went into business with Lawrence G.(...)
  • Emotional aggression
    Aggression that occurs with only a small amount of forethought or intent and that is determined primarily by impulsive emotions.
  • emotional regulation
    the ability to respond to the ongoing demands of experience with the range of emotions in a manner that is socially tolerable and sufficiently flexible to permit spontaneous reactions, as well as the ability to delay spontaneous reactions as needed
  • Emotional truth
    A visceral, heartfelt connection that arises between reader and character or characters through the unfolding (and possibly the resolution) of an invented, narrated conflict, a connection so powerful that the reader perceives reality and truth in what is known to be pretend, known to be fiction.
  • Empathy
    An affective response in which a person understands, and even feels, another person’s distress and experiences events the way the other person does.
  • Empirical
    Based on the collection and systematic analysis of observable data.
  • empresarios
    Meaning "entrepreneur" in English, empresarios were granted the right to settle on Mexican land in exchange for taking care of new settlers.
  • Enabling Act
    A type of legislation which grants authorization of legitimacy to an entity; such as the establishment of government agencies to carry out specific policies. 
  • encomenderos
    The Spanish caretakers in the encomienda system, protecting native laborers under their care while giving them language and religious education in return for tributes in gold or other products.
  • encomienda
    A grant by the Spanish Crown that gave a colonist in the Americas the right to demand tribute and used the Indian inhabitants of the area as forced labor.
  • Enculturation
    The process of learning one's culture
  • End-rhyme
    When two or more words that end lines rhyme.
  • End-stopped
    A line of poetry that ends in punctuation.
  • endometriosis
    a condition in which the layer of tissue that normally covers the inside of the uterus, grows outside of it
  • Enjambed
    The running over of a sentence across multiple lines of poetry.
  • Enrico Fermi
    Italian physicist who worked on the first nuclear reactor (Chicago Pile-1) and contributed to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics. Fermi is also one of the men considered as the "father of the atomic bomb." He excelled in both theoretical(...)
  • Enrique H. Salazar
    Salazar was the founding editor of La Voz del Pueblo in Santa Fe in 1889. He subsequently edited El Independiente in Las Vegas. Throughout his publishing career he remained a vocal supporter of nuevomexicano rights within the United States.
  • Envoi
    Also known as “tornada”: this is the final tercet of a sestina.
  • epigenetics
    The study of heritable phenotype changes that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence; the prefix epi- means above
  • Estevan de Perea
    Called "the father of the New Mexican Church," Perea served as a high-ranking missionary between 1610 and 1638, clashing with several governors and military officials, specifically filing reports of Governor Ceballos' child slave trading.
  • Esteban
    Esteban was the first known African to have arrived on the continental United States. He was one of the four survivors of Narváez Expedition shipwreck that claimed more than 300 lives.
  • estrogen
    primary female sex hormone that is responsible for the development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics
  • et al.
    “et al.” is short for “et alia,” which means “and other people” in Latin. In your paper, if you write Pauling et al. reported X findings, you are saying, Pauling and others reported X findings.
  • Ethnocentrism
    Assuming your culture is superior or judging another culture based on your own worldview
  • Ethnography
    Anthropological description of a culture.
  • ethology
    The study of behavior through a biological lens
  • Ethos
    Appeals to the credibility, reputation, and trustworthiness of the speaker or writer (most closely associated with the voice).
  • European Enlightenment
    A cultural and intellectual movement in 17th Century Europe that highlighted reason and individualism over tradition and religion.
  • Eusebio Chacón
    Chacón was an influential rico editor and political figure that lived in Las Vegas in the late nineteenth century. He used his position to advocate for the adoption of Spanish American Ethnic Identity among nuevomexicanos.
  • euthanasia
    helping a person fulfill their wish to die
  • Evaluation
    An assessment or judgment based on specific criteria
  • evaluation research
    Research designed to assess the effectiveness of policies or programs
  • Evidence
    It is factual information that helps the reader reach a conclusion and form an opinion about something. Evidence is given in research work or is quoted in essays and thesis statements but is paraphrased by the writer. If it is given as it is, then it is quoted properly within quotation marks.
  • Evolutionary adaptation
    The assumption that human nature, including much of our social behavior, is determined largely by our evolutionary past.
  • evolutionary psychology
    A field of study that seeks to identify behavior that is a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors
  • evolutionary psychology
    A field of psychology that focuses on how universal patterns of behavior and cognitive processes have evolved over time
  • Exchange relationships
    Relationships in which each of the partners keeps track of his or her contributions to the partnership.
  • Exclusive submissions
    A term used to refer to poems in the submission process that are under consideration by only one publisher exclusively.
  • exosystem
    The larger contexts of the community, including the values, history, and economy
  • experimental archaeology
    use of modern experimentation to gain insight into the past
  • Experimental confederate
    A person who is actually part of the experimental team but who pretends to be another participant in the study.
  • experimental group
    The group of participants in an experiment who receive the independent variable
  • experimental research
    Research that involves randomly assigning people to different conditions and using hypothesis testing to make inferences about how these conditions affect behavior; the only method that measures cause and effect between variables
  • Experimental research designs
    Research designs that include the manipulation of a given situation or experience for two or more groups of individuals who are initially created to be equivalent, followed by a measurement of the effect of that experience.
  • experiments
    Designed to test hypotheses in a controlled setting in efforts to explain how certain factors or events produce outcomes; the only research method that measures cause and effect relationships between variables
  • Explanations
    Statements that reveal how the examples support and/or complicate a writer's statements.
  • explanatory studies
    Research that tries to answer the question “why”
  • Expository Writing
    Derived from the word "expose," expository writing seeks to expose, explain, describe, define, or inform.
  • Exquisite Corpse
    This form, invented by the Surrealists, is fun to write in a group. Each person writes two lines, then folds the paper so the next person writing can see only the second line; the next person writes two more lines and folds the paper so that only the second line is visible; and so on.
  • Extended-contact hypothesis
    The idea that prejudice can be reduced for people who have friends who are friends with members of the outgroup.
  • Extensive
    Using a large area of land and relatively little labor
  • External validity
    The extent to which relationships can be expected to hold up when they are tested again in different ways and for different people.
  • f
  • Fabiola Cabeza de Baca-Gilbert
    Born to a family that traces its heritage back Álvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca, Fabiola Cabeza de Baca-Gilbert grew up on a ranch on the Llano Estacado not far from Las Vegas. As a young woman, she taught in a rural school in Guadalupe County. Her teaching position made her realize how little(...)
  • Factorial research designs
    Experimental designs that have two or more independent variables.
  • Facts
    Evidence that cannot be disputed.
  • Facundo Melgares
    Spanish military officer who served as the last Spanish Governor of New Mexico and the first Mexican Governor. During the Lewis and Clark expedition Melgares was tasked with keeping the Americans out of the the region in order to keep the territory under Mexican Governorship.
  • fading affect bias
    idea that negative events, such as the death of a loved one, tend to lose their emotional intensity at a faster rate than pleasant events
  • failure to thrive
    Decelerated or arrested physical growth (height and weight measurements fall below the third or fifth percentile or a downward change in growth across two major growth percentiles) and is associated with abnormal growth and development
  • Fajada Butte
    natural formation at Chaco Canyon atop which lies the Sun Dagger
  • Fallacies
    Errors in reasoning
  • False consciousness
    The acceptance of one’s own low status as part of the proper and normal functioning of society.
  • False consensus bias
    The tendency to overestimate the extent to which other people are similar to us.
  • false self-training
    holding a child to adult standards while denying the child’s developmental needs
  • Falsifiable
    Being falsifiable means that the outcome of the research can demonstrate empirically either that there is support for the hypothesis (i.e., the relationship between the variables was correctly specified) or that there is actually no relationship between the variables or that the actual(...)
  • fast-mapping
    a word-learning process in which new words are rapidly learned by making connections between new words and concepts already known
  • fast-mapping
    a word learning process in which children are able to learn words quickly because they associate new words to words that they already know
  • faunal
    refers to animal bone, as in "the faunal assemblage" consisted entirely of mammoth bone
  • features
    non-portable objects modified or made by humans, such as hearths (fireplaces), pits, and ovens (see Chapter 2)
  • federalism
    Federalism is a system of government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority, or representative head, and constituent political units, such as states or provinces. The power to govern is shared between national and state governments based on(...)
  • federalists
    Supporters of the Constitution who were committed to a loose, decentralized system of government.
  • Felipe Chávez
    Son of a prominent nuevomexicano family, Chávez made a fortune on the Santa Fe Trade in the 1820s and 1830s. He established a mercantile in Belen and managed his families trade interests from there. Known widely as Don Felipe, he continued to profit from trade along the Santa Fe Trail well(...)
  • Felipe II
    The king of Spain during the height of his imperial power his empire had colonies on every continent known to Europeans at the time.
  • Felix S. Cohen
    A graduate of Columbia Law School, Cohen was a prominent lawyer who drafted the legislation that became known as the Indian New Deal. The Indian Reorganization Act was the key law that provided for self-determination for Native Americans by ending the period of assimilation policy. After the(...)
  • Female Circumcision
    Also called female genital mutilation (FGM); part of a rite of passage in which part of female genitalia are removed or modified.
  • Feminine End
    A line of poetry that ends with an unstressed beat.
  • Fernanda Martínez
    Martínez was one of the Tierra Amarilla land grant heirs whose family had been advocating for the return of their communal resource rights on the tract long before the arrival of Reies López Tijerina. Along with Gregorita Aguilar, Martínez apprised Tijerina to the deep history of the land grant.
  • Fernando de Argüello
    Between 1644 and 1647 he served as the thirteenth Spanish Governor of New Mexico. During his tenure, he ordered the public hanging of twenty-nine Jemez warriors in order to preempt a rumored rebellion against Spanish authority in preparation for which the Jemez people had reportedly enlisted(...)
  • Fernando VII
    Fernando VII ruled a King of Spain twice, first in 1808 and again a second time from 1814-1833. He was cowardly, corrupt, and unfit to rule. Spain plunged into civil war after his reign.
  • Fertile Crescent
    area of early domestication in the Near East
  • fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
    A group of abnormalities in babies born to mothers who consume alcohol during pregnancy
  • fetus
    An unborn human baby from nine weeks after conception until birth
  • Field experiments
    Experiments conducted in everyday settings.
  • Figurative language
    Words or phrases in which the meaning is not literal.
  • filibuster
    A parliamentary procedure to delay or prevent a vote by extending a debate.
  • filles du roi
    Also known as the King's Daughters, a contingent of 800 French women who were sent to New France between 1663 and 1673 to encourage men to populate and settle in those territories.
  • filter theory of mate selection
    the pool of eligible partners becomes narrower as it passes through filters used to eliminate members of the pool
  • fine motor skills
    Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a coin. The word “fine” in this context means “small”
  • fine motor skills
    precise movements of the wrists, hands, fingers, feet, or toes, such as the ability to reach and grasp an object
  • First Mesa
    First Mesa, or Wàlpi, is a census-designated place in Navajo County, Arizona, on the Hopi Reservation where 1,100 people live (based on the 2000 Census).  
  • First Peoples
    The first Americans, hunter-gatherers who journeyed to the Americas from Asia via the Bering Strait Land Bridge (Beringia) some 12,000 years ago. Also referred to as Paleoindians
  • First person
    A writing perspective that uses “I.”
  • Fitness
    The extent to which having a given characteristic helps the individual organism to survive and to reproduce at a higher rate than do other members of the species who do not have the characteristic.
  • Fixed-sum outcomes
    A gain for one side necessarily means a loss for the other side or sides.
  • Flash(ing) back
    Used in a narrative to introduce a prior, related event in the story.
  • flintknapping
    the process of making stone tools
  • fluid intelligence
    the ability to recognize patterns and solve problems, irrespective of any past experience of the context in which these patterns or problems arise
  • folk Catholicism
    Catholicism practiced by conquered peoples that has influence from native cultures.
  • food insecurity
    limited or uncertain availability of safe, nutritious food
  • Foot
    In metrical verse, lines can be divided into length and rhythm which we refer to as feet.Each foot is comprised of stressed and unstressed syllables.
  • foraging
    Hunting and gathering; reliance on wild foods
  • foreclosure
    term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts his or her parents’ or society’s role and values without questioning or analysis, according to Marcia’s theory
  • Forensic Anthropology
    Field that use anthropological techniques and concepts to help solve modern-day crime
  • Forest Guardians
    Today called the WildEarth Guardians, the Forest Guardians were an environmental group that was founded in 1989. At its founding, the group's principal goal was to preserve the forest on Elk Mountain in New Mexico. Its members, however, did not understand the deep connections between(...)
  • forging
    the shaping by hammering
  • formal operational stage
    The fourth, and last, stage in Piaget’s theory and lasts from about age 11 to adulthood. Children in the formal operational stage can deal with abstract ideas and hypothetical situations
  • formal operational thought
    the fourth and final stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, characterized by more systematic logical thinking and by the ability to understand and systematically manipulate abstract concepts
  • formation processes
    the processes by which an archaeological site was formed; can also include the natural processes which act on a site after it is abandoned
  • Fort Sill
    Located in Oklahoma, the fort was part of the frontier fort system to protect Texas from raids. In 1894, Geronimo and other Chiricahua Apache prisoners of war were taken to Fort Sill. 
  • Fort Sumner
    Near Bosque Redondo, Fort Sumner was used from 1863-1868 for Navajo and Mescalero Apache internment.  
  • FOXP2
    A gene known to influence human language.
  • Francis Boyer
    Founder of Blackdom, New Mexico which is now a ghost town. Boyer established the town to provide African Americans a self-sustaining community free from the discrimination and violence of the Old South.
  • Franciscan order
    Regular Catholic order whose members follow the teachings of Saint Francis of Assisi. They accompanied Hernán Cortés to central Mexico and later expanded their influence and power as the leading order in New Spain, including the Far North (today's New Mexico and U.S. Southwest).  
  • Francisco Antonio Manzanares
    Along with María Varela, Manzanares co-founded the Ganados del Valle Cooperative in the early 1980s to provide nuevomexicano sheep ranchers with the means of marketing their animals and wool products.
  • Francisco de Ayeta
    A Spanish friar who warned the New Spanish government of possible Pueblo uprisings in the late 17th Century, although he was too late.
  • Francisco de la Mora y Ceballos
    The military governor of New Mexico between 1632 and 1635 who issued permits authorizing colonizers to trade goods for native children.
  • Francisco Farfán
    A Spanish friar who led a caravan of sixty-seven caravans from the Mexican mining town of Parral to settle in New Mexico following Diego de Vargas's successful reconquest.
  • Francisco I. Madero
    In 1910, Madero challenged Mexican President Porfirio Díaz in that year's election. When it became apparent that Madero had garnered extensive support, Díaz ordered his imprisonment and manipulated the election. Once the falsified election was over, Madero fled to San Antonio, Texas, where he(...)
  • Francisco “Pancho” Villa
    In March of 1916, General Villa, a prominent general and revolutionary in the Mexican Civil War (1910-1920), led a raid with nearly 100 Mexican revolutionaries into the United States at Columbus, New Mexico.  
  • Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
    A Spanish nobleman who led a large expedition into the American Southwest in search for the Cities of Gold, razing several Native American settlements along the way. His efforts eventually took him as far inland as Kansas, but yielded nothing.
  • Frank Applegate
    One of the Anglos who joined the artist colonies in New Mexico in the early twentieth century, Frank Applegate gained notoriety for his paintings, such as "The Santuario de Chimayó."
  • Frank Springer
    Attorney Frank Springer arrived in the New Mexico Territory in 1870 as the representative of the Dutch East India Company that had purchased sections of the Maxwell Land Grant from Thomas Catron. Once in New Mexico, Springer worked to oppose the power of the Santa Fe Ring over political and(...)
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Elected three times, Roosevelt was the 32nd U.S. President. Progressive leadership during the Great Depression through the "New Deal" brought about positive social change and economic security. He died in office and was succeeded by Harry S. Truman. 
  • Franklin J. Tolby
    Reverend Franklin Tolby was an open critic of the Santa Fe Ring in Cimarron, New Mexico. His murder in 1875 sparked the Colfax County War.
  • Franz Boas
    Sometimes called the father of American anthropology, rejected unilineal evolution and the false distinction between “primitive” and “civilized” people.
  • Fraternal Polyandry
    When brothers share a wife.
  • Fred Harvey
    Known for the Harvey Girls, Harvey was a railroad restaurateur who operated fine dining establishments along the Santa Fe Topeka railroad lines.  
  • Fred Peso
    In his opposition to Wendell Chino's proposed nuclear waste program on Mescalero lands in the early 1990s, former vice president of the tribal council Fred Peso also employed the language of tribal self-determination. He argued that for the Mescalero people to remain free of mandates from the(...)
  • free radical theory of aging (FRTA)
    theory that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time
  • Freewriting
    Writing that comes out as a stream of thoughts unencumbered by grammar, spelling or a few of where it is heading.
  • French and Indian War
    The North American extension of the Seven Year's War fought between France and Britain's colonial armies along with their respective Native American allies. A British victory redrew the map of North America and Europe heavily in Britain's favor.
  • fresco
    mural painting created by applying paint to wet plaster
  • frontal lobes
    the parts of the brain involved in impulse control, planning, and higher order thinking; still developing in adolescence
  • fueros
    During the Spanish Colonial and Mexican periods, fueros were special rights and privileges granted to members of the clergy and the military. Such rights included exemption from civil taxation and from trial in civil courts.
  • function
    how something was used (see Chapter 2)
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging
    A neuroimaging technique that uses a magnetic field to create images of brain structure and function.
  • Fundamental attribution error
    To overestimate the role of person factors and overlook the impact of situations.
  • g
  • gamete
    A male or female reproductive cell
  • gamete intrafallopian tube transfer
    involves implanting both sperm and ova into the fallopian tube which allows fertilization to occur naturally
  • Ganado Mucho
    One of the Navajo Chiefs who signed the U.S. Treaty with the Navajos in 1868 allowing the tribe to leave the Bosque Redondo.  
  • Ganados del Valle
    Ganados del Valle is an agricultural economic development nonprofit that utilized traditional cultural practices to develop small businesses that established marketing programs for local farmers, artists and craftspersons.
  • Gaspar Castaño de Sosa
    Castaño de Sosa was a Spanish explorer and slaver who attempted to establish a settlement in New Mexico.
  • gender
    a term that refers to social or cultural distinctions of behaviors that are considered male or female
  • gender
    a term that refers to social or cultural distinctions of behaviors that are considered male or female
  • gender dysphoria
    a condition listed in the DSM-5 in which people whose gender at birth is contrary to the one they identify with. This condition replaces “gender identity disorder”
  • gender expression
    how one demonstrates gender (based on traditional gender role norms related to clothing, behavior, and interactions); can be feminine, masculine, androgynous, or somewhere along a spectrum
  • gender identity
    the way that one thinks about gender and self-identifies; can be female, male, or genderqueer
  • gender identity
    the way that one thinks about gender and self-identifies, can be woman, man, or genderqueer
  • gene-culture co-evolution
    When a cultural practice affects human biology.
  • General George C. Marshall
    A U.S. General during World War II, who was the architect of the Marshall Plan, which provided the Post WW II European nations with a plan for economic recovery.   
  • generalized slowing hypothesis
    the theory that processing in all parts of the nervous system, including the brain, is less efficient
  • generativity
    the ability to look beyond self-interest and motivate oneself to care for, and contribute to, the welfare of the next generation
  • Genes
    Sequence of nucleotide bases that codes for a protein or molecule that performs a function in the body.
  • genes
    Sequences of DNA that control or partially control a number of characteristics
  • genital stage
    The final stage of psychosexual development when individuals develop sexual interests; begins in adolescence and lasts throughout adulthood
  • Genoa
    A northern Italian coastal city that was one of the centers of the Renaissance, attracting many artists and traders. The city's prosperity led to its establishment of some of the oldest banking institutions in the world.
  • Genome
    Set of genetic instructions for a species.
  • Genotype
    The genetic makeup of an individual.
  • genotype
    The genetic makeup of an individual
  • Genre
    Categories used to describe types of writing such as fiction, non-fiction, poetry, and drama.
  • gente decente
    Literally "decent people," gente decente were those who were considered the core of Spanish Colonial society in New Mexico. They typically used this title to distinguish themselves as civilized, as opposed to nomadic peoples in the surrounding areas
  • George B. Kistiakowsky
    Kistiakowsky was one of the scientists involved in the Manhattan Project. Under his supervision the explosion lens for nuclear weaponry was created to compress plutonium necessary to achieve critical mass on implosion.   
  • George Curry
    Originally from Louisiana, George Curry served with Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders during the Spanish-Cuban-American War. Due to that association, Roosevelt appointed Curry as governor in 1907 after Governor Hagerman was mired in scandals.
  • George Long
    A native of Alabama, Long met Albuquerque's Ernie Pyle during their World War II service in Okinawa. Pyle convinced Long to enroll in the University of New Mexico following the war. Although he originally planned to pursue a degree in Education, his activism to desegregate Albuquerque(...)
  • George McCall
    Highly decorated union brigadier general during the Civil War, McCall also served under Zachary Taylor during the Mexican American War.  
  • George McGovern
    An American liberal Senator from South Dakota, and a staunch anti Vietnam war advocate, Senator McGovern lost the bid for the Presidency in 1972 to Richard Nixon. McGovern spent significant time serving for international humanitarian causes during and after his tenure as U.S. Senator.(...)
  • George McJunkin
    Discoverer of the Folsom site in New Mexico
  • George Meade
    Meade was a Civil War general know for his decisive Union victory at the Battle of Gettysburg which was a pivotal point in the Union defeat of the Confederacy. 
  • George N. Bascom
    Following his graduation from West Point in 1858, Bascom was stationed at Camp Floyd in Utah and then at Fort Buchanan in southern Arizona. His unsuccessful and treacherous attempt to ambush Cochise in 1861 is remembered as the Bascom Affair. When the Civil War began, he was promoted to(...)
  • George W. Kendall
    As a member of the Texas Santa Fe expedition, in 1841, Kendall and the unit were captured by the Mexican Army. He published many of his experiences in the New Orleans Picayune and documented the expedition in a 900 page book. 
  • George Washington Armijo
    During the Spanish-Cuban-American War, Armijo served with Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders. Following the conflict and with Roosevelt's support, Armijo served in several different positions in the territorial government. In 1911, Armijo initiated an annual De Vargas Pageant to coincide with(...)
  • Geronimo
    Bedonkohe Apache leader of the Chiricahua Apache who led his people to defend their land against the United States military. After his family was killed by Mexican soldiers, Geronimo participated in raids in the Southwest, Sonora, and Chihuahua, until his final surrender in 1886. He then spent(...)
  • gerontocracy
    a type of social structure wherein the power is held by a society’s oldest members
  • Gerontocratic
    Society in which older males hold all the power.
  • Gerrymander
    The act of manipulating the boundaries of an electoral constituency to favor a specific party.  
  • Ghazal
    Typically dealing with subjects of love and separation, the ghazal is a form with Arabic roots consisting of rhyming couplets of the same syllabic length and a refrain.
  • Ghost Marriage
    System where a dead spouse is considered the biological parent of a child.
  • Gilded Age
    A term coined by Mark Twain, the last few decades of the nineteenth century have come to be known as the Gilded Age because of the thin veneer of prosperity that masked a politically and economically corrupt society. The Gilded Age was a time of corporate excesses and income inequality in the(...)
  • glacial
    a period marked by cold temperatures and glacial advances (see Chapter 3)
  • Glossary term
    An alphabetical list of terms or words found in or relating to a specific subject, text, or dialect, with explanations; a brief dictionary.
  • glume
    seat coat
  • Glycymeris
    clam shells derived from the Gulf of California used to make Hohokam and Mogollon "armlets"
  • gonad
    a sex organ that produces gametes; specifically, a testicle or ovary
  • gonadarche
    refers to the earliest gonadal changes of puberty. In response to pituitary gonadotropins, the ovaries in girls and the testes in boys begin to grow and increase the production of the sex steroids, especially estradiol and testosterone
  • gonorrhea
    a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • goodness-of-fit
    the notion that development is dependent on the degree of match between children’s temperament and the nature and demands of the environment in which they are being raised
  • gorget
    a decorative bar-like ornament worn at the throat; found in Hopewell and Mississippian contexts; often made from shell
  • Grammar
    Structural rules of language.
  • Grant Chapel AME Church
    Grant Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church was the first black church in New Mexico.
  • Grass-In-Ear Behavior
    Chimpanzee practice of placing a blade of grass in the ear, suggested to be a learned or cultural tradition
  • Grave Goods
    Items intentionally placed in a burial.
  • grave goods
    items associated with a burial
  • Great Hopewell Road
    a road marked by two earthen berms between two major Hopewell centers, Newark and Cillecothe in Ohio; remnants of the road were discovered using early aerial photographs and LiDar
  • great house
    large structures associated with Chaco Canyon
  • Great Moundbuilder Debate
    debate over whether the Moundbuilders of North America were a "lost race" that disappeared or whether they were the ancestors of modern-day Native Americans; early excavations linked the Moundbuilders with modern tribes through examination of material culture
  • Great Northern Revolt
    Due to the uprisings in New Mexico, the rebellious fervor also spread to the New Spanish northern frontier, igniting a series of raids by the nomadic people of northern Mexico.
  • Green Barry Patterson
    Patterson was the Democratic delegate to the 1910 New Mexico Constitutional Convention from Chaves County. During the deliberations, he was offended by a comment made by Albert Fall and he subsequently stormed out of the convention. When the final version of the Constitution was completed,(...)
  • Gregorita Aguilar
    Longtime member of "La Corporación de Abiquiú," Gregorita Aguilar apprised Reis López Tijerina of the historical roots of the struggle over the Tierra Amarilla Land Grant. 
  • grief
    the psychological, physical, and emotional experience and reaction to loss
  • Grito de Dolores
    Translated as "the cry of Dolores," the Grito marked the beginning of Father Hidalgo's independence movement in 1810. His parishioners, most of whom were of indigenous background, rallied behind banners of la Virgin de Guadalupe and called for an end to bad government and "death to the gachupines!"
  • gross motor skills
    Physical abilities involving large body movements, such as walking and jumping. The word “gross” in this context means “big”
  • gross motor skills
    voluntary movements including the use of large muscle groups such as the arms and legs
  • Group polarization
    Is said to occur when, after discussion, the attitudes held by the individual group members become more extreme than they were before the group began discussing the topic.
  • Group process
    The events that occur while the group is working together on the task.
  • Groupthink
    Occurs when a group that is made up of members who may actually be very competent and thus quite capable of making excellent decisions nevertheless ends up making a poor one as a result of a flawed group process and strong conformity pressures.
  • Guadalcanal
    A principal island in the Solomon Islands which was used as the first major offensive by Allied forces against Japan during World War II. Guadalcanal, Florida, and Tulagi were taken by Allied forces and Japan retaliated with three major land battles, seven large naval battles, and daily aerial(...)
  • Guadalupe Miranda
    As a proponent of Land Grant rights for Mexicans in Texas and New Mexico, Miranda fought for Hispanic Mexicans living in the U.S. Territory who wanted to remain Mexican citizens. 
  • Guanahaní
    An island in the Bahamas that was the first the first New World land sighted and visited by Christopher Columbus in 1492. He called it San Salvador.
  • h
  • Haab
    Maya civil calendar of 365 days
  • habitation site
    a site where people lived, in contrast to a kill site or ritual center
  • Haiku
    This well-known Japanese form is three lines long and comprised of unrhymed, unmetered lines with a 5 7 5 syllable count. Traditionally, the haiku’s subject matter relates to nature or seasons.
  • Hanging Indent
    A formatting style for citations in both MLA and APA reference pages in which   every line except the first is a half-inch away from the left margin.
  • Hans Bethe
    German and American physicist whose research on critical mass of nuclear weapons and theories of implosion which led to the development of the Trinity test bomb and the "Fat Boy" atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki Japan in 1945.
  • Harm-based morality
    That harming others, either physically or by violating their rights, is wrong
  • Harold Ickes
    U.S. Secretary of the Interior under Franklin Roosevelt, Ickes is credited with implementing many of the initiatives of Roosevelt's "New Deal." 
  • harquebus
    The "hook gun," an early muzzle-loaded firearm used by Spanish conquistadores in the New World. It was the predecessor of the musket and other modern rifles.
  • Harry S. Truman
    Truman served as the 33rd U.S. President and is largely remembered for bringing an end to World War II with Japan's surrender. He ended the war by dropping the atomic bomb on two Japanese cities. He is also known for his "the buck stops here" leadership attitude.   
  • Harvesting dilemma
    A case in which a social dilemma leads people to overuse an existing public good.
  • Harvey Girls
    Female wait staff for Fred Harvey Restaurants, known for impeccable dress, manner and morals.   
  • Hawikuh
    One of the largest Zuni pueblos during the time of Spanish colonization. It was also the first pueblo to be conquered by the Spanish during Coronado's expedition.
  • Hawthorne effect
    Individuals tend to change their behavior when they know they are being watched
  • Hayflick limit
    the number of times a normal human cell population will divide before cell division stops
  • Heinrich von Eckhardt
    Received the Zimmerman Telegram in 1917 during his time as Resident Minister for the German Empire in Mexico.  
  • Henry Connelly
    Much like other Anglo Americans of his day, not long after he moved to Mexico in 1828 he married a woman from Chihuahua and started a family there. Those types of connections helped him to understand the region and its people. In the early 1840s he relocated his family to Peralta, less that(...)
  • Henry Hopkins Sibley
    Sibley was a Brigadier General for the Confederacy. Sibley lead the Confederate States Army in the New Mexico territory and lost the Battle of Glorieta to General Scurry. 
  • Henry Lane Wilson
    Appointed by President Taft as U.S. Ambassador to Mexico during the Mexican Revolution, Wilson was allegedly involved in a coup d'etat of the Mexican government in 1913.  
  • Henry the Navigator
    The father of Portuguese exploration, Henry was largely responsible for expanding Portuguese knowledge of the Atlantic and Africa through systematic exploration.
  • Herbert Eugene Bolton
    Bolton is considered as the father of the field of Borderlands History. His work in the 1920s and 1930s drew attention to the history of Spanish colonialism in the U.S. Southwest. Although his perspective was generally limited to a celebratory look at the efforts of Spanish explorers, priests,(...)
  • Herbert J. Hagerman
    17th Governor of the New Mexico Territory (1906-07) and Commissioner to the Navajos under the Department of Interior.   
  • Herbert Wright
    Wright is a former Civil Rights Activist and active NAACP member, noted for his 1960 debate with Malcolm X at Yale Law School.
  • Hernán Cortés
    A Spanish conquistador widely known for his exploits in Mexico, toppling the Aztec Empire and bringing much of the region under Spanish rule.
  • heterogamy
    marriage between people who do not share social characteristics
  • heterozygous
    A combination of alleles for a given gene
  • Heuristics
    Discovery procedures that help a writer explore their ideas; for example, the Pentad.
  • Hexameter
    A six-foot line. Also called Alexandrine when purely iambic.
  • hidalgo
    A member of the Spanish nobility. They were typically exempt from paying taxes but owned little property. The term is used to describe a member of the non-hereditary elite because it comes from the phrase "hijo de algo," which means "son of something."
  • hidden curriculum
    cultural values, concepts, behaviors and roles that are part of the school experience but are not part of the formal curriculum
  • Hindsight bias
    The tendency to think that we could have predicted something that we probably would not have been able to predict.
  • Hispaniola
    Caribbean Island that contains modern day Dominican Republic and Haiti, also the site of Columbus's first invasion of the New World.
  • hogan
    Traditional Navajo dwelling usually constructed out of natural material, circular in shape, and with an always eastward facing door towards the rising sun.
  • Hohokam
    The Hohokam migrated north out of Mexico into the Southwest, where they became the most skillful irrigation farmers of the region.
  • Holistic
    An approach in anthropology that considers many different aspects of humanity instead of focusing on a single feature
  • holistic
    emphasizing the importance of the whole. Anthropologists are interested in all aspects of humanity, and thus take a holistic approach to the study of people (see Chapter 1)
  • Holocene
    The Earth's current geological epoch that began roughly 11,000 years ago, marked by the spread of human activity across the planet.
  • Holocene
    A period of time called an epoch that began after the end of the Pleistocene about 11,700 years ago
  • holophrase
    a single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought
  • home state
    occurs when parents or siblings visit the school. Children in this state may enjoy special privileges such as going home early or being exempt from certain school rules in the mother’s presence, or it can be difficult if the parent is there to discuss trouble at school with a staff member
  • homogamy
    marriage between people who share social characteristics
  • homophily
    a tendency of individuals to form links disproportionately with others like themselves
  • homozygous
    Having two copies of the same allele for a given gene
  • Hoover Dam
    Constructed during the U.S. Depression of the 1930's, Hoover Dam, on the Colorado River in Nevada/Arizona, was designed to withhold flood, provide irrigation and produce hydroelectric power for the desert southwest. 
  • Hopewell Tradition
    refers to a large network of trade an exchange with a similar belief system; located in what is now the eastern United States; (ca. 100 BC-AD 500)
  • Hopi House
    A sandstone structure located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon designed by architect Mary Coulter. The building was home for Hopi artisans and craftspeople to market their ware.   
  • Horticulture
    Gardening using mostly human power and simple tools
  • hospice
    a type of care involving palliation without curative intent. Usually, it is used for people with no further options for curing their disease or people who have decided not to pursue further options that are arduous, likely to cause more symptoms, and not likely to succeed
  • huaca
    in Quechua, a native language of South America, a revered monument or object; can be natural or cultural
  • Huaca del Sol
    adobe brick monument at the Cerro Blanco Moche site, Peru
  • Hubert Howe Bancroft
    Hubert Howe Bancroft was an American historian and ethnologist who wrote works concerning the western United States, Texas, California, Alaska, Mexico, Central America, and British Columbia.
  • Hugh McLeod
    McLeod was a soldier and member of legislature in the Republic of Texas. He also commanded the military during the Texas Santa Fe Expedition in 1841.
  • Human Genome Project
    An international projects that mapped out the human genome.
  • Human Genome Project
    International project that mapped out the human genome, the full set of nucleoltide base pairs. The project was completed in 2000.
  • human remains
    human bones, teeth and other tissues (see Chapter 2)
  • human sacrifice
    Ritual practices conducted in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations. The Aztecs often sacrificed prisoners of war from neighboring tribes as offerings to the gods.
  • humanism
    A psychological theory that emphasizes an individual’s inherent drive towards self-actualization and contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their own behavior
  • Humanities
    Disciplines interested in explanations about particular human societies often through description and critique
  • Humphries Wildlife Management Area
    Established by the New Mexico Game Commission, and managed by the Department of Game and Fish. The area is a consolidation of five tracts of land in north central New Mexico around Tierra Amarilla and provides wildlife habitat for elk, deer, black bears, and other wildlife. 
  • hunter-gatherers
    people that live off wild, non-domesticated food; also called foragers (see Chapter 3)
  • Hunting and Gathering
    Foraging; reliance on wild foods
  • Hunting Magic
    Attempting to increase animal numbers or aid in the hunt using magic.
  • hunting magic
    idea that representations of animals can magically increase animal populations or assist in hunting them
  • hyper-diffusionism
    relying on diffusionist ideas (spreading out from a single locus) on a grand scale
  • Hyperbole
    An exaggerated statement.
  • hypertension
    high blood pressure that can lead to severe complications and increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, and death
  • hypotheses
    Specific statements or predictions about the relationship between variables
  • hypothesis
    A testable prediction
  • hypothetical thought
    reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality
  • i
  • Iamb
    ˘ ΄ A light stress followed by a heavy stress.
  • Ian Hodder
    known for his post-processualist approach, is the lead archaeologist at the site of Çatalhöyük in Turkey
  • Iberian Peninsula
    Europe's third largest peninsula located in the continent's southwest, dominated by Spain and Portugal, and previously occupied by the Romans, Goths, and Islamic Empire.
  • Iceman
    Europe's earliest natural mummy; found in the Tyrolean Alps of Italy (see Chapter 2)
  • id
    The part of the self that is biologically-driven, includes our instincts and drives, and wants immediate gratification
  • identity
    the understanding that objects have an identity or qualities that do not change even if the object is altered in some way
  • identity achievement
    Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans; already questioned and made commitment according to Marcia’s theory
  • identity vs. role confusion
    Erikson’s term for the fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out “Who am I?” but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt
  • Ideology
    Ideas about how people should think and behave.
  • ideology
    belief system or world view
  • Ignacio Orrantía
    Orrantía was a U.S. Deputy Marshal for Doña Ana County in the 1860s. Following the electoral violence in Mesilla in 1871, with Fabián Gonzales he led a group of ninety-six families to settle La Ascensión, Chihuahua.
  • Image
    A mental picture, what we see with the mind’s eye.
  • Imagery
    A description that appeals to one of the five senses.
  • imaginary audience
    the other people who, in an adolescent’s egocentric belief, are watching and taking note of his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior. This belief makes many adolescents very self-conscious
  • Imagism
    A 20th century movement in poetry advocating free verse and the expression of ideas and emotions through clear precise images
  • immunization
    A process that stimulates the body’s immune system by causing the production of antibodies to defend against attack by a specific contagious disease
  • imprinting
    In psychology and ethology, imprinting is any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior
  • Impure line
    A line in a poem that breaks from an established pattern altogether.
  • in situ
    means in place (see Chapter 2)
  • in vitro fertilization
    this procedure involves removing eggs from the female, fertilizing the eggs outside the woman’s body, and then reinserting into the woman’s uterus
  • Indeh
    The Apache word for their own people.
  • independent invention
    when technological innovations happen independently in different regions; contrast with diffusion, where traits spread from one region to another
  • Independent variable
    The situation that is created by the experimenter through the experimental manipulations.
  • independent variable
    Something that is manipulated or introduced by the researcher to the experimental group; treatment or intervention
  • Indian Reorganization Act
    The Wheeler-Howard Act, or Indian Reorganization Act, of 1934 was the key legislation that created the Indian New Deal. Most significantly, the act reversed federal policies of assimilation and allowed for tribal self-determination.
  • indios bárbaros
    The Spanish labeled tribes like the Apaches, Utes, and Navajos as "Barbaric Indians" due to their nomadic/semi-nomadic lifestyle, non-Christian beliefs, and often hostility towards the Spanish.
  • indios de rescate
    "Rescued" Native Americans subjected to fifteen or twenty years of service to their "liberators." The Spanish justified this claiming they were doing the natives a favor by "freeing" them from captivity and educating them in "civilized" culture and Christian teachings.
  • Individualism
    Cultural norms, common in Western societies, that focus primarily on self-enhancement and independence.
  • Inductive Reasoning
    The consideration of a number of results and forming a generalization based on those results.
  • Industrialized Food Production
    Reliance on huge farms, single crops, chemical inputs (fertilizer/pestisides), large scale production of meat
  • infantile marasmus
    Starvation due to a lack of calories and protein
  • infantile or childhood amnesia
    the idea that people forget everything that happened to them before the age of 3
  • information-processing approach
    An alternative to Piagetian approaches, a model that seeks to identify the ways individual take in, use, and store information
  • information-processing perspective
    derives from the study of artificial intelligence and explains cognitive development in terms of the growth of specific components of the overall process of thinking
  • Informational conformity
    The change in opinions or behavior that occurs when we conform to people whom we believe have accurate information.
  • Informational report
    Informs or instructs and presents details of events, activities, individuals, or conditions without analysis.
  • informed consent
    A process of informing a research participant what to expect during a study, any risks involved, and the implications of the research, and then obtaining the person’s agreement to participate
  • Ingroup
    Those whom we view as being similar and important to us and with whom we share close social connections.
  • Ingroup favoritism
    The tendency to respond more positively to people from our ingroups than we do to people from outgroups.
  • Government Initiative
    A procedure used in the government in which voters propose a new measure of legislation.  
  • Inn of the Mountain Gods
    A premier mountain resort in the mountains of Mescalero, New Mexico, outside of Ruidoso. 
  • insecure-avoidant attachment (type A)
    a pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver’s presence, departure, or even return
  • insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment (type C)
    a pattern of attachment in which an infant’s anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when the infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion
  • Institutional Review Boards (IRBs)
    A panel of experts who review research proposals for any research to be conducted in association with the institution (for example, a university)
  • Instrumental aggression
    Aggression that is intentional and planned.
  • Insufficient justification
    When the social situation actually causes our behavior, but we do not realize that the social situation was the cause.
  • Insulting The Meat
    Kalahari forager tradition of calling the meat worthless to keep the hunter humble
  • Integrative outcomes
    A solution can be found that benefits all the parties.
  • integrity
    Erikson refers to this as reflecting on one’s life and experiencing a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment
  • Intensive
    Using a small area of land with increased labor or technology inputs
  • Intensive Agriculture
    Farming with the use of animal labor, plow, fertilizers, irrigation or terracing
  • inter-glacial
    warming trend between glacial periods during the Pleistocene (see Chapter 3)
  • Interdependent
    People relying to a great degree on each other to meet their goals.
  • Internal rhyme
    Lines of poetry in which words in the middle of a line rhyme with words at the end of other lines.
  • Internal validity
    The confidence with which we can draw conclusions about the causal relationship between the variables.
  • Interpersonal attraction
    The strength of our liking or loving for another person.
  • intramural
    inside of a structure/building
  • Introduction
    Frames a writer's paper by introducing the issue at hand, establishes the writer's position, and identifies the writer's scope of coverage.
  • introjection
    a process Freud described where children incorporate values from others into their value set
  • intuitive thought
    thoughts that arise from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation, and are influenced by past experiences and cultural assumptions
  • invincibility fable
    an adolescent’s egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high-speed driving
  • irreversibility
    when a person is unable to mentally reverse a sequence of events
  • Isaac Lynde
    At the first Battle of Mesilla, during the U.S. Civil War, Lynde was the recipient of information from a Confederate deserter about a surprise attack from the Confederates.  
  • Issue dialogue
    Creation dialogue about a topic during the early analysis stage that focuses on the most extreme positions then moving towards more reasonable compromises. 
  • Italian quatrain
    A poem consisting of four lines written in iambic pentameter and rhyme A B B A.
  • Italian Renaissance
    A period of cultural and scientific revival in Italy starting in the 14th Century, led to the eventual European Renaissance.
  • j
  • J. Edgar Hoover
    Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI). Under his directorship, the FBI became an autonomous federal agency that willingly participated in illegal investigation methods.  
  • J. Robert Oppenheimer
    One of the team of physicists who were tasked by President Franklin Roosevelt to being the nuclear program in the U.S. during W.W. II. The team worked on the Manhattan Project, in Los Alamos, New Mexico which eventually developed the first nuclear bomb. The bomb was initially tested at the(...)
  • Jacob C. Morgan
    Morgan gained prominence among the Navajo people for his efforts to resist John Collier's livestock reduction program during the Indian New Deal. To undermine Collier's efforts, Morgan enlisted the help of Senator Dennis Chávez.
  • James Buchanan
    Buchanan served as the 15th U.S. President. Historians suggest that Buchanan was responsible for American Civil War by not addressing the southern state succession from the Union. 
  • James Gadsden
    Despite the decision of the binational Boundary Commision, in 1853 Mexian officials forced Americans off of their lands in the disputed Mesilla Valley. As a result, New Mexico governor William Lane declared the area to be part of the United States; Mexican President Santa Anna responded by(...)
  • James H. Carleton
    General James H. Carleton arrived in New Mexico in 1861 at the head of the California Column. He succeeded Colonel Canby as commander of the Department of New Mexico. In that capacity, he targeted the Mescalero Apache and Navajo people for forced relocation to the ill-planned Bosque Redondo.
  • James J. Dolan
    Union Army veteran James J. Dolan built a commercial enterprise, L. G. Murphy & Co., with Emil Fritz and Lawerence G. Murphy.  
  • James K. Polk
    Polk served as U.S. President during the U.S.-Mexican War. By the end of his four year presidency, he had added 1.2 million acres of land to the United States.
  • James Magoffin
    Magoffin was a successful American merchant in Coahuila and Chihuahua in the 1830s. He had married into a prominent northern Mexican family, providing him with important connections to powerful people in the region. In the early 1840s he relocated his business to Missouri and continued to(...)
  • James Peter Davis
    James Peter Davis served as Archbishop of Santa Fe from 1964-1974 after being appointed by Pope Paul VI.
  • Jean Baptiste Lamy
    As the first bishop and archbishop of the Diocese of Santa Fe, Lamy's tenure was filled with conflict with the local parish priests and parishioners specifically Taos priest Father Antonio José Martínez. The initial conflict resulted when Lamy reinstated tithing for parishioners, something(...)
  • Jean L'Archevêque
    French trader, soldier, and explorer who was one of the two survivors of the ill-fated French colony of Fort Saint Louis in Texas.
  • Jesse Jackson
    Jackson was an American Civil Rights leader, and one time associate of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Reverend Jackson organized grassroots movements, such as Operation PUSH and the Rainbow Coalition.
  • Jesuasa Alfau
    Alfau was a cartoonist from Madrid who created patriotic pieces in support of U.S. involvement in World War I. Her work played a role in rehabilitating the image of Spain among Americans.   
  • Jesús María Hilario Alarid
    Alarid (1834-1917) was a well-known bardo, or people's poet, and teacher who lived in the village of Galisteo. As a notable bardo, he published regularly in New Mexico's Spanish-language press during the territorial period.   
  • Jesús Tafoya
    Tafoya issued a declaration throughout Rio Arriba that called nuevomexicanos to arms against the U.S. occupation under Colonel Sterling Price in January of 1847. Price learned of the insurrection and led 353 men northward to combat Tafoya's forces at the Battle of La Cañada. Tafoya was killed(...)
  • Jesusita Perrault
    Jesusita Perrault was born in Chihuahua in 1888. When she was young, her family moved to Silver City, New Mexico. After attending the Silver City Normal School and becoming a teacher, she also became involved in Grant County politics. Between 1921 and 1923 she served as county assessor. In(...)
  • Jigsaw classroom
    An approach to learning in which students from different racial or ethnic groups work together, in an interdependent way, to master material.
  • Jim Crow Discrimination
    A system of segregation and discrimination, which lasted until the mid 20th Century, which barred African Americans from the same civil rights and freedoms as white Americans.
  • jizya
    A tax levied on the Islamic Empire's non-Islamic subjects, particularly adult men of military age. The purpose was for the subjects to show their acceptance of their Islamic rulers. In return, they were allowed to practice their faiths and retain communal autonomy.
  • Joaquín Terrazas
    Joaqín Terrazas was a well-known Apache fighter in Chihuahua in the mid-to-late nineteenth century. His cousin, Governor Luis Terrazas, called him out of retirement to lead the effort to subdue Victorio's band in 1879 and 1880.
  • Joe S. Sando
    Sando is an accomplished Pueblo historian and author and former director of Institute for Pueblo Indian Studies in Albuquerque, New Mexico.
  • John and William Slaughter
    The Slaughter Brothers were Texas cattlemen who ranched the West from Utah, to New Mexico, and Texas.
  • John C. Frémont
    As an explorer with the U.S. Topographical Engineers, Frémont traveled west on a mapping expedition to the border of Mexico and California in 1846. He discovered many californios who wanted California, or the Bear Flag Republic, to join the United States. Frémont declared himself a commander(...)
  • John Collier
    John Collier was one of the "romantic reformers" drawn to New Mexico in the 1920s by the perception that its people practiced pre-modern lifeways. He was enthralled with the people of Taos Pueblo, and their economic and political situation inspired him to advocate for Native American(...)
  • John Frere
    Frere realized, based on excavations at Suffolk, England, that archaeological remains were older than previously thought, beyond early Biblical estimates (see Chapter 1)
  • John H. Tunstall
    British born rancher and merchant, Tunstall lived in Lincoln County, New Mexico. His murder ignited the Lincoln County War, a war to win the dry goods trade in the county. Billy the Kid also participated in this New Mexico range war. 
  • John J. “Black Jack” Pershing
    General Pershing led the Punitive Expedition into Chihuahua in 1916 and 1917 in search of Pancho Villa following his raid on Columbus. Although the expedition failed to capture Villa, the experience offered a means for the U.S. Military to prepare for its subsequent involvement in World War I(...)
  • John M. Chivington
    Chivingon led Colorado Volunteers to support Union forces at the Battle of Glorieta Pass in late March of 1862. With Lieutenant Major Manuel Chávez as his guide, Chivington's forces captured the Confederate supply train and forced the Confederate soldiers into retreat. On November 29, 1864,(...)
  • John M. Washington
      In 1848 as Military Governor of New Mexico, Washington was tasked with settling the war between the Navajo people and the United States.    
  • John Munroe
    Military Governor of New Mexico Territory 1849- 1851. Historians define his tenure as unprincipled and out of touch with the realities of the western frontier.   
  • John Nance Garner
    A vice president serving under Franklin Roosevelt, Garner was politically opposed to Roosevelt's New Deal efforts and resigned the position in 1941.   
  • John P. Slough
    Slough was a Union Colonel who lead the Union in the Battle of Glorieta Pass in which the Union soldiers defeated the Confederacy. Slough later became an Army Brigadier General who served as a chief justice in the Territory of New Mexico. He was assassinated by a member of the territorial(...)
  • John Russell Bartlett
    After the Treaty of Guadalupe, in which Mexico ceded to Texas, Arizona, and California to the U.S., Bartlett was appointed U.S Boundary Commissioner in charge of documenting the boundaries. As it happened, Bartlett incorrectly marked the boundaries of New Mexico and Texas, which resulted in(...)
  • John Slidell
    Slidell was a United States agent to Mexico, before the U.S.-Mexican War, who was tasked to negotiate and establish the Rio Grande River as the boundary between Mexico and the Territory of New Mexico. Failed negotiations partially led to the U.S.-Mexican War.
  • John Talberth
    Talberth was the leader of the Forest Guardians, an environmental group located in Santa Fe. The mission of the group was to protect the Northern New Mexico forests from over-logging and destruction.
  • John Tyler
    Tyler served as the tenth U.S. President and signed legislation to annex Texas into the union.
  • Jointure
    The designation of property, held by one spouse (historically the husband) and jointly used by both spouses, to be provided to the other spouse (historically the wife) in the event of the death of the spouse holding the property.  
  • Jornada del Muerto
    Dead Man's Journey: a 90-mile passage across an arid desert east of the Rio Grande between present-day Rincon and San Marcial. Travelers going to Santa Fe from Mexico used it as a shortcut, but it lacked water or grazing pasture.
  • José Antonio Navarro
    Leading Mexican politician to favor Texas Independance and Texas Statehood. He served as a Texas State legislator to represent the rights of the Tejanos after Texas Independence.  
  • José Aragón
      One of the most prolific and influential santeros during the time of New Mexico's religious revival during the 18th and 19th centuries.  
  • José D. Sena
    Clerk of the Supreme Court and State Delegate during New Mexico's bid for Statehood.
  • José de Gálvez
    A lawyer and Spanish colonial official who was one of the leading proponents behind the Bourbon Reforms. Was also an inspection officer for the frontier defenses in northern New Spain.
  • José Francisco Chaves
    The election contest between Republican José Francisco Chaves and Democrat José Manuel Gallegos sparked the 1871 riot in Mesilla that left nine people dead. Gallegos ultimately won the election to become the New Mexico Delegate to Congress, and many of the Republican supporters of Chaves(...)
  • José Inez Salazar
    Mexican Revolutionary General José Inez Salazar was imprisoned in Albuquerque for a violation of U.S. neutrality laws when he crossed the border to escape a villista assault during the Battle of Ojinaga in 1914. Elfego Baca served as he lawyer and was implicated for aiding Salazar's escape(...)
  • José Jesús Baca
    José de Jesús Cabeza de Baca is known as a schism in the New Mexican Catholic Church. In 1819 he was baptized into the Church and in 1853 Baca had signed some sacramental entries in the books at San Albino. By 1854 Baca had taken over the ministry at San Albino Catholic Church.  
  • José Joaquín de Herrera
    Elected as president of the Republic of Mexico after Santa Ana was exiled to Cuba. Herrera was a more moderate political voice than the militarists. At the onset of the Mexican American War Herrera attempted to negotiate with the U.S. Perceived as weak, he was ousted in a military coup.
  • José Manuel Gallegos
    New Mexico Territory delegate to the U.S. Congress.   
  • José María Maytorena
    Governor of Sonora during the Mexican Revolution, his allegiances to national revolutionary leaders constantly shifted.
  • José María Morelos
    Catholic priest who joined Miguel Hidalgo's 1810 insurrection. Morelos later became the leader of the Mexican Independence Movement and declared Mexico as independent in 1815. 
  • Josefa Jaramillo
    One of prominent Taos resident Francisco Esteban Jaramillo, at the age of 14 Josefa married Kit Carson. In order to gain her father's trust, Carson converted to Catholicism. Together, the couple had eight children. She died of complications after giving birth to her eighth child in late April(...)
  • Joseph Geronimo
    A grandson of the legendary Chiricahua headman Geronimo, Joseph Geronimo led the opposition to Wendell Chino's proposal to bring nuclear waste to Mescalero lands in the early 1990s.
  • Joseph Rodman West
    West was a U.S. Senator from Louisiana, a Civil War general, and he commanded the army which killed Apache Chief Mangas Coloradas at Fort McLane in southwest New Mexico.  
  • Joseph Stalin
    Stalin was a Russian dictator who transformed the USSR, through violence and terror, from an agrarian/peasant society to a military and industrial powerhouse.  
  • Josiah Gregg
    Gregg was a nineteenth century merchant and explorer who was involved with the Santa Fe Trade. HIs book, "Commerce of the Prairies," is an important primary source that tells the story of the social, political, and economic impacts of the trade. As with so many other primary sources, Gregg's(...)
  • Juan Andrés Archuleta
    Archuleta built a military career in New Mexico between 1820 and 1850 by leading campaigns against Ute and Navajo people, as well as by organizing militias to defend outlying settlements like Abiquiú. He also played an instrumental role in the capture of the members of the Texan-Santa Fe(...)
  • Juan Bautista de Anza
    The governor of New Mexico between 1778 and 1788, tasked with building an alliance with the Comanche Indians. In 1779, he succeeded in establishing peace with the Comanches; in 1786 the peace arrangement was also extended to Navajo and Ute tribes. 
  • Juan Bautista Vigil
    Vigil was the last Mexican Governor of the New Mexico after the defeat of the Mexican Army to the United States. In 1846, possession of New Mexico was turned over the the United States. 
  • Juan Cuna
    A Hopi Indian found in possession of a Kachina doll and accused of idol worshipping, punished by heavy beatings.
  • Juan de Eulate
    A Spanish soldier who served with distinction and eventually became the 4th governor of New Mexico. During his time in office, he led military campaigns against the Apache tribes and took many members into slavery.
  • Juan de Oñate
    A Spanish explorer who led multiple expeditions into the Colorado Valley and Great Plains, also ruled as governor of the Santa Fe de Nuevo México Province. He put down the Acoma Revolt in 1598.
  • Juan de Ulibarrí
    Ulibarrí was one of Albuquerque's founders who later claimed the territory of Colorado for the Spanish crown.
  • Juan de Zaldívar
    Zaldívar was Juan de Oñate's nephew. After his death at Acoma Pueblo, his killing escalated to the Acoma Massacre.
  • Juan de Zumárraga
    The first bishop of Mexico who championed for the welfare of the natives.
  • Juan José Herrera
    Late 19th century union organizer for the Knights of Labor near San Miguel County, New Mexico and one of the founders of Las Gorras Blancas "The White Caps". Herrera supported indigenous groups, by being a voice for the poor and underrepresented Spanish speaking New Mexicans. 
  • Juan José Peña
    One of the most prolific and influential santeros during the time of New Mexico's religious revival during the 18th and 19th centuries.
  • Juan Pio
    Pio was a priest of Tesuque Pueblo in the 17th century. His murder by the people of Tesuque sparked the Pueblo Revolt.
  • Judgments
    Conclusions drawn from the given facts; they are more credible than options
  • Juh
    Juh (pronounced "whoa") was the leader of the Janeros local group of the Nednhi, and he collaborated with Mangas Coloradas and Cochise in many wars against the U.S. Army. Following the execution of Mangas Coloradas, he led his band to their traditional home in the Blue Mountains of Chihuahua's(...)
  • Julius C. Burrows
    A U.S. Senator from Michigan, who is cited as being the person responsible for New Mexico's long path to statehood.   
  • just wars
    The theory where wars can be morally justified if they meet certain criteria, such as preventing atrocities that would otherwise happen in the absence of war. For the Spanish, moral justification came from the Catholic Church.
  • k
  • kachina
    Spirit beings in western Pueblo religious beliefs that represent natural and social phenomenons like rain, harvest, and medicine. Also spelled katsinas or catsinas.
  • Kanzi
    A bonbo chimpanzee taught to communicate using lexigrams.
  • Katauta
    A three-line poem with the syllable count 5 7 7, the first line posing a question that the next two lines attempt to answer in an intuitive, immediate way.
  • katsina
    Puebloan ancestor spirit
  • Kaytennae
    Kaytennae was a Chiricahua Apache who joined with Victorio's band during campaign to remain free of reservation life in 1879 and 1880. One of those who escaped the battle at Tres Castillos, Kaytennae later married Gouyen, known among the Chiricahua for her wisdom. In the early 1880s Kaytennae(...)
  • Kearny Code
    The laws of the Territory of New Mexico, set forth by Brigadier General Stephen Kearny, outlining the principle of freedom and liberty for the citizens of the territory. 
  • Kenneth Bainbridge
    Kenneth Bainbridge was an American physicist at Harvard University. He was the director of the Manhattan Project's Trinity nuclear test in 1945. After the test he dedicated his career to ending the testing of nuclear weapons and to efforts to maintain civilian control of future .developments(...)
  • Kennewick Man
    skeleton radiocarbon dated to 9,600 B.P. in Washington state; is the center of a long-standing NAGPRA controversy
  • Keresan
    A group of languages spoken by the Keres pueblo people of New Mexico containing a wide variety of dialects that are often discerned as different languages.
  • Keyword
    A word which occurs in a text more often than we would expect to occur by chance alone.
  • Kim Agnew
    Daughter of Vice President Spiro Agnew, Kim rode horses in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains with a group of Pueblo people to promote the return of Blue Lake to the people of Taos Pueblo. 
  • Kin selection
    Strategies that favor the reproductive success of one’s relatives, sometimes even at a cost to the individual’s own survival.
  • kinkeeping
    “emotion work”, often undertaken by women, to foster and maintain family relationships
  • Kiowa
    A nomadic Native American tribe of the Plains. 
  • Kirtland Air Force Base
    Located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Kirtland Base played a role in training pilots and bombardiers during World War II. Kirtland also served as the airbase to provide Manhattan Project personnel with needed supplies and materials to build the atomic bomb.   
  • kiva
    semi-subterranean (partially underground) ceremonial structure of the American Southwest
  • Klaus Fuchs
    German physicist Klaus Fuchs joined the Communist Party of Germany but fled to England when Nazis took control on Germany in 1933. Professor Max Born of Edinburgh University helped get Fuchs out of an internment camp in Quebec. In 1943, Fuchs was sent to the U.S. to collaborate on the(...)
  • Knights of Labor
    Established as a secret union in 1869, the Knights accepted members for the union regardless of occupation, sex, or ethnic background. During the Haymarket Riots in Chicago, the Knights participated in the strikes, much to the dismay of their organizer Terence V. Powderl.  
  • Koko
    A western lowland gorilla that was taught to use some signs in American Sign Language.
  • Kuaua
    Kuaua is a historic site open to the public to view. Currently with the name of Coronado, this was one of many large settlements established during the period of the 1325 to 1600 CE.
  • kwashiorkor
    Also known as the “disease of the displaced child,” results in a loss of appetite and swelling of the abdomen as the body begins to break down the vital organs as a source of protein
  • kya
    shorthand for thousands of years ago (see Chapter 2)
  • l
  • L. Bradford Prince
    Appointed as a Governor of the New Mexico territory, Prince was also a leading member of the Santa Fe Ring.  
  • La Cooperativa Agrícola de Tierra Amarilla
    Formed in 1969, the cooperative addressed and worked to improve the economic, medical, educational and agricultural conditions of the Tierra Amarilla citizens in northern New Mexico. 
  • La Corporación de Abiquíu
    In the 1930s, heirs to the Tierra Amarilla Land Grant organized La Corporación de Abiquíu in order to raise funds and fight for the return of grant lands in the New Mexico courts. Through La Corporación, the heirs attempted to work through the legal system to achieve the ends that Las Gorras(...)
  • La Ferrassie
    site in France with evidence of Neanderthal burial; skeletons are oriented east-west and are articulated
  • La Mano Negra
    Known as "The Black Hand", this underground group was alleged to have killed and repressed members of the anarchy groups organized in rural Spain. In New Mexico history, groups of the Tierra Amarilla land grant activists used this moniker when fighting private ranchers and businesses for land(...)
  • La Raza Unida Party
    Established in 1970, the "United Race Party" worked for better socio-economic, educational, and working conditions for Mexican Americans.
  • lactose tolerance
    The ability to digest lactose into adulthood as a result of natural selection. 
  • Laguna
    New Mexico's largest Keresan speaking pueblo, today its population is more than 7,000.
  • Laguna Santero
    While the identity of the Santero is unknown, the surviving altar screen, retablo mayor is located on the Pueblo of Laguna. Many retablo mayor throughout New Mexico have been attributed to this artist. 
  • Land Tenure
    Typical in common law systems, land tenure provides a ruler the right to own the land, while the private owner is the renter or sub renter. In native tribe, the notion of land tenure did not exist. However, in negotiating indigenous treaties, Europeans used the term aboriginal tenure to grant(...)
  • language acquisition device (LAD)
    Chomsky’s term for the hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn the language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary, and intonation
  • Larynx
    Also called the voice-box; where the vocal cords are housed.
  • Lascaux Cave
    A Pleistocene cave in France with numerous ice animal paintings.
  • Lascaux Cave
    an Upper Paleolithic cave site in France known for its paintings, ca. 15-17,000 B.P.
  • latency stage
    The fourth stage of psychosexual development, spanning middle childhood, during which sexual development and sexual impulses are dormant
  • latillas
    secondary wood support beams in a structure; vigas and latillas
  • law of effect
    Behavior that is followed by consequences satisfying to the organism will be repeated and behaviors that are followed by unpleasant consequences will be discouraged
  • Lawrence G. Murphy
    Old West businessman and gunslinger, Murphy was prominent in the Lincoln County War and documented as the instigator of fights between corrupt businessmen and local ranchers during that period. 
  • Laws of Burgos
    Drafted in Burgos, Spain, this set of laws forbade the maltreatment of indigenous peoples of the New World and encouraged their conversion to Catholicism.
  • Laws of the Indies
    A set of laws issued by the Spanish Empire concerning settler-native relations in the Americas and Philippines.
  • leader generativity
    mentoring and passing on of skills and experience that older adults can provide at work to feel motivated
  • Leads
    In an academic essay, an opening, usually located in the introduction, that hooks the reader into wanting to read further.
  • Learned helplessness
    People who have extremely negative attributional styles, in which they continually make external, stable, and global attributions for their behavior.
  • Learning
    The relatively permanent change in knowledge that is acquired through experience.
  • Legal Personhood
    An entity that has legal rights and obligations
  • lens
    lenticular (biconvex) shaped deposits; lenses were found inside Monks Mound representing basketloads of earth
  • Leó Szilárd
    Szilárd was a Hungarian-American physicist who garnered President Roosevelt's support for atomic bomb research and development, which became the Manhattan Project . 
  • Leslie Groves
    Lieutenant General Leslie Richard Groves, Jr. oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and directed the Manhattan Project. After nuclear weapon responsibility shifted to the United States Atomic Energy Commission in 1947, Groves headed the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project.  
  • Levirate
    System where a brother steps in and marries his brother’s widow.
  • Lewis Binford
    an influential American archaeologist who created the New Archaeology of the 1960s which sought to make archaeology more scientific
  • Lexigrams
    Symbols representing ideas and objects used by Kanzi , a bonobo chimpanzee.
  • life expectancy
    a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender
  • lifespan perspective
    an approach to studying development which emphasizes that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, contextual, and multidisciplinary
  • Lifespan perspective
    An approach to studying development which emphasizes that development is lifelong, multidimensional, multidirectional, plastic, contextual, and multidisciplinary
  • limbic system
    structures in the brain (including the amygdala) that involve processing emotional experience and social information and determining rewards and punishments; develops years before the prefrontal cortex
  • limpieza de sangre
    "Purity of blood" claimed by many Spaniards, especially nobleman, indicating that they came from a strictly Christian lineage without Jewish or Muslim ancestry.
  • Linguistic Anthropology
    Field of anthropology interested in human language
  • lintel
    a horizontal block found over a doorway, window or fireplace. Wood lintels above doorways were dated using dendrochronology at Chaco Canyon sites
  • Little Texas
    Section of the Llano Estacado in east-central and southeastern New Mexico that shares cultural ties with west Texas. Texan cattlemen moved into the region in the late 1800s, and Texan oil companies dominated the region’s economy during the first half of the twentieth century.
  • Lloyd Tireman
    In Mexico during the 1920s, Tireman closely observed the post-revolutionary government's attempt to establish cultural missions in rural areas to provide education and other training to indigenous people. With the support of Mary Austin, Tireman established the San José Experimental School in(...)
  • Loaded terms
    Words infused with negative associations.
  • Loco
    Chief of the Warm Springs Apache tribe, who travelled to Washington D.C. to talk of negotiation. During the travel back, he was captured and held at Ft. Levenworth and eventually sent to Florida as a prisoner of war. 
  • Logos
    Appeals to reason, logic, and facts in an argument. In a rhetorical situation, it is the appeal most closely associated with the message.
  • Long Count
    Maya system of tracking long periods of time from a base date; similar to the A.D. system
  • long-term memory
    the third component of the memory system where information is stored for long periods of time
  • long-term memory
    the storage of information over an extended period
  • longitudinal research
    Studying a group of people who may be of the same age and background (cohort), and measuring them repeatedly over a long period of time; may confound age and time of measurement effects
  • looking-glass self
    the process by which our sense of self develops as we interact with others through various social relationships and incorporate the way those other people view us into our own sense of self
  • Lord of Sipán
    refers to the highly decorated burial remains of the Moche culture. The tomb included the regalia of an elite male with objects of gold, silver, and copper. He is thought to represent a figure engaged in a human sacrifice ritual depicted on Moche pottery.
  • Lord Pacal
    Maya king burial in the Temple of Inscriptions at Palenque
  • los niños heroes
    Translated as "the heroic cadets" or "boy heros", during the Mexican American War six teenage Mexican cadets died defending the Chapultepec Castle in Mexico City against the U.S. Army in the Mexican American War.   
  • Louis XIV
    The King of France who ruled from 1643 until his death in 1715. His 72-year reign makes him the longest-serving monarch in Europe. Under his rule, France undertook massive colonization endeavors, claiming lands in the Americas and Africa. 
  • Louisiana Purchase
    In 1803, the U.S. purchased 828,000,000 acres of land from France. The Louisiana Purchase effectively increased the geography of the United States two-fold. The purchase was delineated by the Mississippi River to the east, the Rocky Mountains to the west, Canadian border to the north, and(...)
  • Lucien Maxwell
    During the mid 1880s Maxwell was one of the largest private landholders in the United States. Additionally, Billy the Kid was killed by Pat Garrett at Maxwell's Fort Sumner home
  • Luis de Rosas
    Rosas served as the ninth governor of New Mexico. His disagreements with the local populace led to his assassination in 1641.
  • Luis de Tupatú
    Tupatú was a Pueblo leader who negotiated a peace settlement with Diego de Vargas between the Natives and Spaniards in New Mexico. He was subsequently appointed governor of all thirteen pueblos.
  • Luis Echeverría
    President of Mexico (1970-1976) who nationalized the mining and electrical industries, imposed limits on foreign investment, and doubled the population covered by social security. Unfortunately, such measures were meant in part to cover up the Dirty War that his administration waged on the(...)
  • Luís Terrazas
    Terrazas was a wealthy Mexican businessman, landowner, politician and entrepreneur who was Governor of Chihuahua on various occasions between 1858 and 1903.
  • m
  • Mabel Dodge Luhan
    Influential and wealthy patron of early 20th century writers and artists, Luhan hosted the artists and literary giants of the day at her home in Taos. The group became the Taos Art Colony. 
  • machine learning
    a form of artificial intelligence where a computer learns from data and improves its responses over time.
  • macrosystem
    Cultural elements such as global economic conditions, war, technological trends, values, philosophies, and a society’s responses to the global community which impact a community
  • Magic
    System of causation or transformation that does not adhere to naturalistic causes.