On November 1, 1915, carrancista forces under General Plutarco Elías Calles routed Pancho Villa’s army at Agua Prieta, adjacent to Douglas, Arizona, on the U.S.-Mexico Border. The battle devastated Villa’s forces and continued to erode his former reputation for invincibility. Additionally, because President Woodrow Wilson had authorized the carrancistas’ use of the Southern Pacific Railroad to move troops and supplies to Agua Prieta, Villa considered the battle evidence of U.S. betrayal of his trust. Following the battle, he openly called for the murder of Americans in Mexico. Just a few months later, on March 9, 1916, he led the infamous raid on Columbus, New Mexico.
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