John M. Chivington

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Chivingon led Colorado Volunteers to support Union forces at the Battle of Glorieta Pass in late March of 1862. With Lieutenant Major Manuel Chávez as his guide, Chivington’s forces captured the Confederate supply train and forced the Confederate soldiers into retreat. On November 29, 1864, Chivington orchestrated the genocidal Sand Creek Massacre against the people of Cheyenne and Arapaho headmen Black Kettle, White Antelope, and Left Hand.