In the fall of 1915 the administration of Woodrow Wilson recognized Carranza as the de facto president of Mexico despite the continuation of revolutionary violence. Wilson’s decision caused Carranza’s rival, Pancho Villa, to retaliate against Americans because he believed that he had been betrayed by the United States. Carranza retained power as President and “First Chief” of the Revolution until 1920 when Alvaro Obregón challenged his choice of a civilian candidate to succeed him in the presidency. During the ensuing conflict, Carranza was killed while attempting to regroup in Veracruz.
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