Chapter 1

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Chapter 2

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“Animals think, therefore…” The Economist. Retrieved from

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Kabadayi, C. and M. Osvath (2017). Ravens parallel great apes in flexible planning for tool-use and bartering, Science, 357(6347):202–204 | doi:10.1126/science.aam8138

King, Barbara (2016, Mar. 29) Seeing Spirituality in Chimpanzees. The Atlantic. Retrieved from

Kühl, H. S., Kalan, A. K., Arandjelovic, M., Aubert, F., D’Auvergne, L., Goedmakers, A., . . . Boesch, C. (2016, February 29). Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing. Retrieved from

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Marshall-Chalmers, A. (2020, October 30). Crow funerals and what we can learn from them. Bay Nature. Retrieved September 7, 2022, from

Main, D. (2014, June 30). Some Chimps Are Putting Grass in Their Ears For No Particular Reason. Smithsonian. Retrieved from

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Chapter 3

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Gurven, M., & Hill, K. (2009). Why Do Men Hunt? Current Anthropology, 50(1), 51-74. doi:10.1086/595620

Gurven, M., & Kaplan, H. (2007, May 29). Longevity Among Hunter‐Gatherers: A Cross‐Cultural Examination. Population and Development Review. Retrieved from

Hawkes, K., J.F. O’Connell, and N.G. Blurton-Jones. (1995) Hadza children’s foraging: juvenile dependency, social arrangements, and mobility among hunter-gatherers. Current Anthropology. 36 (4) 668–700

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Kelly, R. L. (2013). The Lifeways of Hunter-Gatherers: The Foraging Spectrum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Korn, Peter. A Village in Ecuador’s Amazon Fights for Life as Oil Wells Move In. (2018, November 06). Retrieved from

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Matthews, C. (2014, November 01). Wealth inequality is 10 times worse than income inequality. Fortune. Retrieved from

Merchant, B. (2017, June 18). Life and death in Apple’s forbidden city. Retrieved from
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Spiro, Jonathan Peter (2008). Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Press. pp. 43–51.

Steffen, Will, Wendy Broadgate, Lisa Deutsch, Owen Gaffney, Cornelia Ludwig. The Trajectory of the Anthropocene: the Great Acceleration. The Anthropocene Review. Retrieved from

Survival International. “The Pygmies” Retrieved from

Tegmark, Max (2017) Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence. Penguin Random House, New York.

Uzendoski, M. (2005). The Napo Runa of Amazonian Ecuador. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Vidal, John (2014, April). “Botswana bushmen: ‘If you deny us the right to hunt, you are killing us’.” The Guardian. Retrieved from

Vishnu Dev, P. (2016) Foragers: The Chenchus. Notion Press.

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Chapter 4

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Block, Lauren, and Thomas Kramer. “The Effect of Superstitious Beliefs on Performance Expectations – Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.” SpringerLink, Springer US, 9 Sept. 2008,

Bultmann, Rudolf. Theology of the New Testament. (n.d.). Retrieved September 14, 2017, from

Hood, B. M. (2009). Supersense: why we believe in the unbelievable. New York: HarperOne.

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Khazan, O. (2013, June 13). Africa’s New Agents of Progress in Female Health: Traditional Male Chiefs. The Atlantic. Retrieved February 06, 2018, from

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Simmons, Ann. (Sept. 30, 1998) Where Fat Is a Mark of Beauty. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 20, 2017, from

Swanson, Tod. D.  “Eulodia Dagua, ‘A face painted with water animals to resist sickness.”’  Youtube video. 2:40.  August 15, 2013.

Tenoi, S. (2014, February 06). An alternative to female genital mutilation that prevents girls suffering The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2018, from

Wescott, Lucy. (2015, February). Female genital mutilation on the rise in the U.S. Newsweek. Retrieved from

Chapter 5

Ahmed, B. (2018, April 30). Confronting a Sexual Rite of Passage in Malawi. Retrieved from

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Beckerman, S. and P. Valentine, 2002. Introduction. The concept of partible paternity among Native South Americans. In Beckerman, S. and P. Valentine (eds), 2002. Cultures of Multiple Fathers. The theory and practice of partible paternity in Lowland South America. Gainesville, FL:. University Press of Florida, pp. 1-13.

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Nanda, Serena (2000). Arranging a marriage in India. From Stumbling Toward Truth: Anthropologists at Work, edited by Philip R. Devita, 2000, pp. 196–204. Published by Waveland Press.

Joyce, Rosemary (2013, Mar. 27) . Ask An Anthropologist about Marriage. Psychology Today. Retrieved from

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Morin, M. (2014, February 24). Magical contagion: The power of celebrity’s touch. Retrieved from

Ratcliffe, R. (2018, September 28). Dowries a major contributor to India’s gender imbalance, researchers find. Retrieved February 21, 2021, from

Small, Meredith (2003 April 1). “How Many Fathers Are Best?” Discover Magazine. Pp. 54

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Chapter 6

Arnold, K., & Zuberbühler, K. (2008). Meaningful call combinations in a non-human primate. Current Biology, 18(5). doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.01.040

Enard, W., Przeworski, M., Fisher, S. E., Lai, C. S., Wiebe, V., Kitano, T., . . . Pääbo, S. (2002, August 14). Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature. Retrieved January 21, 2018, from

Fox-Skelly, J. (2018, February 14). Ants care for wounded comrades by licking their wounds clean. Retrieved February 19, 2021, from

Hu, Jane C. (2014, August 20) “What do Talking Apes Really Tell Us?” Slate. Retreived from

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MacInnes, P. (2008, October 24). Beyoncé? we think you mean sasha fierce. The Guardian. Retrieved March 1, 2022, from

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Shu, W., Cho, J. Y., Jiang, Y., Zhang, M., Weisz, D., Elder, G. A., . . . Buxbaum, J. D. (2005, July 05). Altered ultrasonic vocalization in mice wh a disruption in the Foxp2 gene. Retrieved January 21, 2018, from

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Chapter 7

BBC. (2007, June 08). Wild chimpanzee displays his authority, even when the camera crew gets in the way – BBC wildlife. Retrieved July 13, 2017, from

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BBC. (2016, August 30). The dark side of Uganda’s gorilla tourism industry. Retrieved from

Birkinshaw CR (1999) Use of millipedes by black lemurs to anoint their bodies. Folia Primatol 70:170–171

Estrada, A., Garber, P. A., Rylands, A. B., Roos, C., Fernandez-Duque, E., Fiore, A. D., . . . Li, B. (2017, January 01). Impending extinction crisis of the world’s primates: Why primates matter. Retrieved July 24, 2017, from

Galdikas, B. M. (1996). Reflections of Eden: My life with the orangutans of Borneo. London: Indigo.

Grimm D. (2015, June 12). Research chimps to be listed as ‘endangered’. Retrieved from

Grimm, D. 1, 2. H., 1, 2. D., 1, 2. D., 31, 2. Z., 31, 2. D., . . . 20, 2. J. (2017, July 26). Research on lab chimps is over. Why have so few been retired to sanctuaries? Science Mag. Retrieved August 01, 2017, from

Gunst, N, P.L. Vasey, J.B. Leca (May 2018) Deer Mates: A Quantitative Study of Heterospecific Sexual Behaviors Performed by Japanese Macaques Toward Sika Deer. Archives of Sexual Behavior.

Heesy, C. P. (2009, February 25). Seeing in stereo: The ecology and evolution of primate binocular vision and stereopsis. Retrieved from

Howard, B. C. (2016, December 06). Rangers Killed in Africa’s Oldest Park Push Death Toll to 150. Retrieved from

Kaiser J. (2013, June 26). NIH Will Retire Most Research Chimps, End Many Projects. Retrieved from

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Nekaris, Anna (2013, May 06). Is Social Media Saving or Enslaving the Slow Loris?: Anna Nekaris at TEDxNashville. Retrieved February 03, 2018, from

Nicole, W. (2014, November 25). Is the Human Cost of Saving Gorillas Too High? Retrieved July 13, 2017, from

Peckre, L.R., Defolie, C., Kappeler, P.M. et al. Primates (2018).

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Setchell, J. (2017, February 08). New Study: 60% of Primate Species Threatened with Extinction. Retrieved from

Shwartz, M. (2007, March 07). Robert Sapolsky discusses physiological effects of stress. Retrieved July 13, 2017, from

Sims, S. (2018, June 14). After Violence, Congo’s Virunga National Park Closes for the Year. Retrieved from

Smithsonian. Why Spider Monkeys Only Have Four Fingers. (n.d.). Retrieved August 01, 2017, from

Strauss, Iliana. (June 12, 2017). Turns Out Apes Are Pretty Good at Office Politics, Too. New York Magazine. Retrieved August 02, 2017, from

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Chapter 8

Associated Press. (2013, April 18). Kissing cousins? Icelandic app warns if your date is a relative. Retrieved January 24, 2018, from

Bakalar, N. (2018, February 01). The Smiling Axolotl Hides a Secret: A Giant Genome. New York Times. Retrieved February 04, 2018, from

Carl, D. (2017, August 07). New Mexico-originated disease killing hundreds of residents. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from

Geddes, Linda. (2014 Feb. 5). ‘There is no DNA test to prove you’re Native American’. New Scientist. Retrieved January 25, 2018, from

HHMI Biointeractive. “The Biology of Skin Color – HHMI BioInteractive Video.” YouTube. YouTube, 20 July 2015. Web. 14 July 2017, from

HHMI (2014, August 26). The Evolution of Lactose Tolerance – HHMI BioInteractive Video. Retrieved July 14, 2017, from

HHMI (2014, August 26). Malaria and Sickle Cell Anemia – HHMI BioInteractive Video. Retrieved July 14, 2017, from

Innolyst, T. (n.d.). The International Cavernous Angioma Patient Registry. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from

Khan Academy. Genetic drift, bottleneck effect, and founder effect. (n.d.). Retrieved July 14, 2017, from

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Sarwatka, Frank, Connie Lee, Gwendolyn Gainer. (n.d.). Baca Family Historical Project. Retrieved August 16, 2017, from

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U.S. National Library of Medicine. KRIT1 gene – Genetics Home Reference. (n.d.). Retrieved August 16, 2017, from

Chapter 9

Alex, B. and P. Moorjani (2017, August 09). How Molecular Clocks Are Refining Human Evolution’s Timeline. Retrieved from

Berger, L. R., Hawks, J., Ruiter, D. J., Churchill, S. E., Schmid, P., Delezene, L. K., . . . Zipfel, B. (2015, September 10). Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa. Retrieved from

Calloway, E. (2016, March 14). Oldest ancient-human DNA details dawn of Neanderthals. Retrieved from

Dirks, P. H., Roberts, E. M., Hilbert-Wolf, H., Hawks, J., Dosseto, A., Duval, M., . . . Berger, L. R. (2017, May 09). The age of Homo naledi and associated sediments in the Rising Star Cave, South Africa. Retrieved from

Hawks, J., Elliott, M., Schmid, P., Churchill, S. E., Ruiter, D. J., Roberts, E. M., . . . Berger, L. R. (2017, May 09). New fossil remains of Homo naledi from the Lesedi Chamber, South Africa. Retrieved from

Ichumbaki, M., E. B., Cherin, M., Barili, A., Boschian, G., Iurino, D. A., . . . Manzi, G. (2016, December 14). New footprints from Laetoli (Tanzania) provide evidence for marked body size variation in early hominins. Retrieved from

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King, B. J. (2017, June 15). What Are Our Best Clues To The Evolution Of Fire-Making? Retrieved from

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Kouwenhoven, A.P. (1997, June). World’s Oldest Spears. Retrieved from

Lovett, R. (2010). Butchering dinner 3.4 million years ago. Nature. Retrieved from doi:10.3897/bdj.4.e7720.figure2f

McDougall, I., Brown, F. H., & Fleagle, J. G. (2005, February 17). Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia. Retrieved from

Meyer, M., Arsuaga, J., Filippo, C. D., Nagel, S., Aximu-Petri, A., Nickel, B., . . . Pääbo, S. (2016, March 24). Nuclear DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins. Retrieved from

Prüfer, K., Racimo, F., Patterson, N., Jay, F., Sankararaman, S., Sawyer, S., … Pääbo, S. (2014). The complete genome sequence of a Neandertal from the Altai Mountains. Nature505(7481), 43–49.

Sci-News. Dmanisi Human: Skull from Georgia Implies All Early Homo Species were One | Anthropology. (n.d.). Retrieved July 20, 2017, from

Tomos Proffitt, Lydia V. Luncz, Tiago Falótico, Eduardo B. Ottoni, Ignacio de la Torre, Michael Haslam. Wild monkeys flake stone tools. Nature, 2016; 539 (7627): 85 DOI: 10.1038/nature20112

Vitebsky, P. (2005). Reindeer people: Among the humans, animals and spirits of Siberia. London: HarperCollins.

Zimmer, C. (2017, June 07). Oldest Fossils of Homo Sapiens Found in Morocco, Altering History of Our Species. Retrieved from

Chapter 11

Stephen E. Nash (28 Jul 2017) Balter, M., Gabbatiss, J., & Gusterson, H. (2017, July 19). How the Folsom Point Became an Archaeological Icon. Retrieved August 01, 2017, from

Chapter 12

Adams, T. (2010, July 10). David Cope: ‘You pushed the button and out came hundreds and thousands of sonatas’. Retrieved from

Belluck, Pam. In Breakthrough, Scientists Edit a Dangerous Mutation From Genes in Human Embryos. (2017, August 02). Retrieved August 18, 2017, from

Bostrom, N. (n.d.). What happens when our computers get smarter than we are? Retrieved from

Bressler, R. D., & Bakerlee, C. (2018, December 06). “Designer bugs”: How the next pandemic might come from a lab. Retrieved from

Connolly, K. (2002, June 22). German animals given legal rights. Retrieved from

Doudna, J. (2017, June 26). How CRISPR Could Revive Extinct Species. Retrieved from

Dwyer, C. (2017, March 16). A New Zealand River Now Has The Legal Rights Of A Human. Retrieved from

Harari, Y. N. (2018). Homo Deus: A brief history of tomorrow. S.l.: McCelland & Stewart.

Khatchadourian, R. (2017, September 07). The Doomsday Invention. Retrieved from

Manjoo, F. (2011, September 25). Pharmacy robots: Will my father lose his job to a gigantic pill-packing machine? Retrieved September 06, 2017, from

McGee, S. (2016, May 15). Rise of the billionaire robots: how algorithms have redefined hedge funds. Retrieved September 07, 2017, from

Ratner, P. (2017, June 04). Here’s when machines will take your job, as predicted by AI gurus. Retrieved from

Saey, T. H. (2017, August 02). CRISPR repaired a genetic defect in human embryos for the first time in the U.S. Retrieved August 18, 2017, from

Thrun, S. (March 2010). Google’s driverless car. Retrieved from

Vincent, J. (2017, October 04). DeepMind launches new research team to investigate AI ethics. Retrieved from

Illing, Sean. “Technology Isn’t Just Changing Society – It’s Changing What It Means to Be Human.” Vox, 23 Feb. 2018,

Warburton, N. (2017, September 09). What does a portrait of Erica the android tell us about being human? Retrieved from

Yu, A. (2017, May 27). How A Gene Editing Tool Went From Labs To A Middle-School Classroom. Retrieved August 27, 2017, from

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